IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


28th August, 2023 Environment

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  • In its continued efforts to combat air pollution effectively, the CSIR's National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) has introduced a novel grid-based mitigation strategy.
  • This approach was presented during the India Clean Air Summit (ICAS) 2023 in Bengaluru by S K Goyal, Chief Scientist and Head of CSIR-NEERI's Delhi Zonal Centre.


Grid-Based Mitigation Strategy: 'Local Area Management Plan' (LAMP)

  • The new strategy involves the development of a grid-based mitigation plan known as the 'Local Area Management Plan' (LAMP).
  • This innovative approach aims to address air pollution on a localized level by creating tailored strategies for specific pollution hotspots during different seasons.
  • Recognizing that a uniform solution is not always effective, LAMP offers the flexibility to devise customized strategies within the jurisdiction of policymakers.

Moving Away from One-Size-Fits-All Approach

  • The traditional 'one size fits all' approach to air pollution mitigation has often fallen short in achieving the desired results.
  • By introducing LAMP, policymakers can align their efforts with the objectives of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) while considering the unique challenges of each hotspot.

Tile-by-Tile Concept for Monitoring

  • The implementation of LAMP draws inspiration from a tile-by-tile concept, where the entire National Capital Region (NCR) is divided into a grid of tiles, each covering an area of two square kilometers.
  • This grid-based system allows for precise monitoring and analysis of air quality conditions across different tiles.
  • A network of stationary and mobile sensors will closely monitor these tiles throughout two distinct seasons, providing comprehensive data for informed decision-making.

Emphasizing Hotspot-Specific Actions

  • This approach recognizes that different regions may have varying pollution sources and contributing factors, necessitating tailored strategies for maximum impact.
  • The introduction of the grid-based mitigation strategy and the Local Area Management Plan (LAMP) showcases CSIR-NEERI's commitment to addressing air pollution with innovation and precision.
  • By embracing technology and adopting localized strategies, the institute aims to contribute significantly to the ongoing efforts to improve air quality and public health.

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)

Origins and Evolution

  • Established in 1958 as the Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute (CPHERI) in Nagpur.
  • Renamed NEERI in 1974 to signify its broader focus on environmental issues beyond sanitation.
  • Operates under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and contributes to India's scientific advancements.

Early Focus and Shift

  • Initially concentrated on human health issues related to water supply, sewage disposal, and communicable diseases.
  • Addressed challenges with chemical and biological solutions.
  • Transition to Environmental Science and Engineering
  • In the 1970s, global awareness of environmental contamination grew.
  • Renamed NEERI to reflect its shift towards environmental science and engineering research.
  • Focus expanded to encompass regional and global environmental concerns.
  • Dedicated to research, innovation, and solutions for environmental challenges across industries, governments, and public.

Structure and Reach

  • Operates as a pioneering laboratory under CSIR.
  • Constituent laboratory of CSIR with five zonal laboratories in Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Mumbai.
  • Operates under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.
  • Plays a role in India's Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) National Implementation Plan (NIP).


  • Conducts research and development in environmental science and engineering.
  • Assists industries and local bodies in addressing environmental pollution issues.
  • Collaborates with academic and research institutions for mutual benefit.
  • Participates in CSIR's environmental thrust area and mission projects.

Contributions and Initiatives

  • Established due to water pollution concerns in Delhi.
  • Addressed water and air pollution in urban areas, focusing on regional development.
  • Expanded scope to cover a wide range of environmental issues.
  • Engages in environmental monitoring, biotechnology, waste management, and impact assessment.
  • Provides expertise in environmental management, policy analysis, and regulatory support.
  • Utilizes environmental biotechnology and genomics for sustainable development.
  • Offers solutions to pollution problems and supports during environmental crises.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

  • The CSIR, established by the Indian Government in September 1942, has evolved into the largest research and development organization in India.
  • Its primary focus is to contribute to scientific and technological advancements, making significant contributions to various sectors.
  • CSIR operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • The organization boasts an extensive network, including 37 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers, and 5 units spread across the nation.

Research and Development

  • CSIR is at the forefront of research and development activities across an array of domains.
  • Its contributions span aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, healthcare (including diagnostics), metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.
  • These efforts collectively drive technological advancements and solutions across various industries.

Intellectual Property

  • CSIR's commitment to innovation is evident through its extensive intellectual property portfolio.
  • With 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents active within India, CSIR's influence extends globally.
  • Its cumulative patent count, exceeding 14,000 since inception, underscores its dedication to advancing knowledge and technology.
  • In recognition of its efforts, CSIR was honored with the National Intellectual Property Award in 2018 for its contributions to patents and commercialization.

Historical Background

  • During the 1930s, India recognized the necessity of research organizations for industrial and natural resource development.
  • Visionaries like C. V. Raman and Lt. Col. Seymour Sewell proposed the establishment of an advisory board for scientific research.
  • The concept gained momentum, leading to the creation of the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) in 1940.
  • This marked the initial step towards the formation of CSIR.

Formation of CSIR

  • The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was formally established on September 26, 1942.
  • The foundation of CSIR was built upon the framework of the BSIR and the Industrial Research Utilisation Committee (IRUC).
  • This laid the groundwork for the development of five national laboratories, including the National Chemical Laboratory, National Physical Laboratory, Fuel Research Station, Glass & Ceramics Research Institute, and National Metallurgical Laboratory.

Organizational Structure

  • The organization's President, who is the Prime Minister (Ex-Officio), and Vice President, the Minister of Science & Technology, India (Ex-Officio), provide high-level guidance.
  • The Governing Body, led by the Director General and including the finance secretary, oversees the organization's functioning.
  • The CSIR Advisory Board, a 15-member body comprising experts from diverse fields, offers valuable insights to the governing body.


  • CSIR's accomplishments span a wide spectrum, showcasing its impact on various sectors.
  • These include the development of India's first synthetic drug, methaqualone; contributions to optical glass for defense purposes; the creation of the indigenous Swaraj tractor; breakthroughs in bamboo flowering; genetic diversity analysis of indigenous Andamanese tribes; development of the popular Sonalika tractor; advancements in transgenic models for cancer drug screening and family planning pills; the design of India's pioneering parallel processing computer, Flosolver; and significant contributions across several fields.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

  • Established in 1958 and named after Founder Director Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, this prestigious award honors individuals who have significantly contributed to their specialized fields.
  • The award includes a substantial cash prize, citation, plaque, and stipend, and is presented to outstanding researchers through a rigorous selection process.


The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) remains a pivotal force in driving India's scientific and technological progress. Through its extensive research, innovations, and diverse contributions, CSIR continues to shape various sectors and play a vital role in the nation's development journey.


Q. Air pollution poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. In this context, discuss the role of integrated strategies and multi-stakeholder collaboration in mitigating air pollution in urban areas. Illustrate your answer with examples from India's efforts to address air quality concerns. (250 Words)