IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


9th June, 2023 Defence

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Context:  CRPF is Looking to strengthen its elite force CoBRA by considering a change in training pattern.

More about the news:

  • In 2021 maximum age of assistant commandant rank officials to join CoBRA was increased from up to 30 years to below 40 and for deputy commandants from 38 to 43 in 2 years.
  • The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is now considering a change in the training pattern for induction into the elite anti-Naxal unit Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA).
  • It is being decided to address the issue of a rise in the number of trainees returning to the unit without completing their training or tenure in the current batch.
  • Also, the non-reporting of officers and personnel for CoBRA Commando Pre-Induction Training (CCPIT) is a concern to be addressed.

About CoBRA:

  • Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) is a specialised force which has been raised for guerilla/jungle warfare type operations for dealing with Maoist and therefore also known as ‘jungle warriors’.
  • It was Formed in 12 September 2008.
  • Personnel for CoBRA are selected from CRPF as CoBRA is an integral part of CRPF.
  • There are 10 CoBRA Units, in all, which were raised between 2008-2011.
  • All the 10 BNs were deployed in all LWE/insurgent affected areas of Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya.
  • The CoBRA effectively deals with specific challenges like Maoist violence and has played a crucial role in the shrinking of Naxalism in India.

Issues with CoBRAs:

  • Shortage of nominees due to complex criteria for selection.
  • Incomplete training of the commandos and trainers returning to the units due to faults in training and medical issues.
  • non-reporting of officers and personnel for CoBRA Commando Pre-Induction Training (CCPIT)

Way Ahead:

  • Identification of nature of sickness/injury to the trainees due to which they were returned.
  • Identifying the faults in the training and need for changes required in the training process.
  • The decision to look at the possibility of selecting fresh recruits from the training institutions immediately after their passing out should be implemented at the earliest.
  • A CoBRA team should visit the training institutes to identify prospective candidates suitable for induction into the unit.
  • For addressing the issue of a large number of officers and men not reporting for undergoing the CCPIT, a formal compliance mechanism and its review should be in place.

Other Elite Forces of India/Special Forces of India:

There are several special forces in India some of which are working under the commands of the Indian Armed Forces, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force, while others are special forces which are operated under civilian organisations such as the Home ministry.

  • MARCOS (Marine Commandos): is a Special Forces unit under the control of the Indian Navy. Their task is to do direct action, special reconnaissance, amphibious warfare, counter-terrorism, etc.  They were formed in 1987.
  • Para Commandos: they are part of the Parachute Regiment of the Indian Army, which was formed in 1966.
  • The Special Protection Group: It is a security force of the Government of India that has a responsibility for the protection of the Prime Minister of India. It was formed in 1988 by an Act of the Parliament of India.
  • Ghatak Force: Ghatak Platoons are special operations capable platoons present in infantry battalions of the Indian Army. Ghatak is a Sanskrit word meaning "killer" or "lethal". They act as shock troops and spearhead assaults ahead of the battalion.
  • Force One: It came into being in the year 2010 after the 26/11 terrorist attacks in Mumbai. Their major role is to protect the city of Mumbai from terrorist attacks.
  • The National Security Guard: They are commonly known as Black Cats, They are a counter-terrorism unit of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs and it  was founded on 16 October 1984, following Operation Blue Star, for combating terrorist activities and protecting states against internal disturbances. The NSG is responsible for providing  security to VIPs, conducting anti-sabotage checks and neutralising terrorist threats in vital installations.


CoBRA is a crucial force to tackle the challenge of Left Wing Extremism in India. They must be nurtured and provided adequate training facilities with added benefits to ensure their excellence in their operations.


Consider the following statements about CoBRA:

  1. Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA) is a specialised force which has been raised for guerilla/jungle warfare type operations for dealing with Maoist insurgency.
  2. They are commonly known as Black Cats.

Which of the above statements are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1and 2
  4. None

Ans:  1