IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


3rd February, 2024 Geography


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Chamundi Hill ropeway plan in Mysuru resurfaces, green activists maintain opposition.


Chamundi Hills

Topography & Geology

  • Chamundi hill is situated in the direction of southeast, abutting Mysore city, Karnataka. The isolated hillock is spread over 12º 15’ 34” - 12° 17´ 5” N and 76º 39’ 63”- 76° 42´ 02” E. The hill has periphery of c. 11 Km and surface area of c.17 Km2. The study area is dotted with seven hillocks ranging from 861- 944 m, asl surrounding peak plateau of 1024-1057 m.
  • Geologically, the rocks are pink and gray granite depending on various elements present in it.
  • These youngest igneous rocks are due to recent volcanic activity (0.8 billion years old) compared to the nearby peninsular Gneissic rocks of sargur-kabbal durga (2.3 billion years old).
  • Red gravelly soil with rich silica content, rocky surface and scanty rainfall7 (762 mm) supports the tropical deciduous thorn-scrub type of vegetation in Chamundi reserve forests.
  • The forest is presently protected as reserve forest by the Karnataka state forest department since 2001.

Flora & Fauna

  • The trees here are armed with thorns, stunted and slow-growing. Vast areas are covered with bushes of Pterolobium hexapetalum, Toddalia asiatica, Rhus mysorensis, and Ziziphus oenoplia forming impenetrable undergrowth.
  • Nine different micro-climatic regions of floristic importance with some species specificity are recorded here. These include plants of the plains (Syzygium cumini, Tamarindus indica), foothills (Cochlospermum religiosum, Boswellia glabra, Commiphora caudata), slopes (Shorea talura, Garuga pinnata), plateau (Gmelina arborea, Pterocarpus marsupium, Santalum album), valleys (Mangifera indica, S. talura), hill-tops (Diospyros montana, Holarrhena pubescens), ponds or pools (Hygrophila schulli, Limnophila indica), tanks (Aponogeton natans, Centella asiatica, Eclipta alba, Bacopa monnieri, Utricularia spp.) and significant evergreen scrub at higher elevations (Canthium dicoccum, Plecospermum spinosum)
  • Study over a period of a decade has resulted in observation of 153 species representing all the six families. Varied vegetation is supporting healthy population of butterflies here.
  • The diversity in Chamundi hills, a tropical deciduous thon scrub forest is reflected in wide diversity of the bird species. The species ranges from the typical plain resident species like Ashy Prinia Prinia socialis to winter visitor Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis.
  • Animals like Bonnet macaque Macaque , Common Leopard , Rusty spotted Cat , Small Indian Civet , Common palm civet , Common/Grey Mongoose , Golden Jacakal , Pangolin , Black-naped Hare , Northern Plains Langur.

Cultural Significance

  • Chamundi Hill is the one place that attracts thousands of tourists.
  • It is a holy place with a lovely temple of Goddess Chamundeswari, one of the forms assumed by Maha Kali.
  • The Goddess is also the family deity of the erstwhile rulers of Mysore state - The Wodeyars. The hill is thus a place of pilgrimage drawing thousands of devotees.


“Chamundi hill” often mentioned in news is located in which of the following state?

  1. Kerala
  2. Karnataka
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Telengana

Answer B