IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


9th May, 2024 Security


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Picture Courtesy: https://www.euronews.com/2024/02/02/ukraine-claims-its-sea-drones-sank-a-russian-warship-moscow-says-patriot-missiles-downed-i

Context: In the Black Sea, a Ukrainian drone boat successfully targets a small, high-speed Russian ship in an attack.

About Black Sea

  • The Black Sea is bordered by six countries: Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, Turkey, and Georgia.
  • It is also known as the Euxine Sea, is an inland sea situated between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • It is surrounded by the Pontic, Caucasus, and Crimean Mountains in the south, east, and north, respectively.
  • It drains into the Mediterranean Sea through the Aegean Sea and various straits.
  • Islands within the Black Sea include Snake Island (Ukraine), Giresun Island (Turkey), and St. Ivan Island (Bulgaria).


  • Kerch Strait: Connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, located between the Crimean Peninsula and the Russian peninsula of Taman.
  • Bosphorus Strait: Joins the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara, passing through Istanbul (formerly Constantinople).
  • Dardanelles Strait: Links the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara, forming part of the boundary between Europe and Asia.

Straits refer to narrow waterways connecting two larger bodies of water, such as channels or passages between islands or continents.


  • The climate of the Black Sea region varies significantly depending on geographical factors such as proximity to mountains and prevailing wind patterns. Generally, the climate can be described as continental, characterized by pronounced seasonal temperature variations.
  • Key climatic zones within the basin include:
    • Steppe Climate (Northwest): Cold winters and hot, dry summers due to the influence of air masses from the north.
    • Humid Subtropical Climate (Southeast): Sheltered by high mountains, experiencing abundant precipitation, warm winters, and humid summers.
  • In winter, cold air masses from Siberia (Siberian anticyclone) bring significant cooling and ice formation, especially in the northwest. Tropical air from Mediterranean regions also influences the climate during specific periods.


  • Surface waters have lower salinity (17-18 parts per thousand) compared to oceans.
  • Oxygen is primarily present in upper water levels, supporting marine life. Below certain depths, oxygen levels decrease, leading to "dead zones" with hydrogen sulfide contamination.

Trade through the Black Sea

  • The Black Sea is a vital route for commodity flow, serving as a major trade route between Europe and Asia.
  • It facilitates transportation of crude oil, refined oil products, agricultural goods (such as wheat and corn), and iron and steel.
  • Ukraine and Russia play significant roles in global agricultural trade, exporting substantial amounts of wheat, corn, and sunflower oil through Black Sea ports.

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Black Sea





Q. Consider the following statements in the context of the Black Sea:

1. It is connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Kerch Strait

2. It has a higher salinity compared to the Mediterranean Sea.

3. It is anoxic (lacks oxygen) below a certain depth due to limited water circulation.

4. It is connected to the Sea of Azov through the Bosporus Strait.

How many of the above statements are incorrect?

A) Only one

B) Only two

C) Only three

D) All four

Answer: C