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Black-necked Grebe and Hokersar Wetland

29th December, 2023 Environment

Black-necked Grebe and Hokersar Wetland

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  • In a rare bird sighting, a Black-necked Grebe was sighted in the Hokersar wetland.

Black-necked Grebe

  • The Black-necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) is a species of waterbird belonging to the grebe family.


  • The Black-necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) has a widespread distribution, inhabiting various regions across Europe, Asia, and Africa.
  • Specific populations can be found in countries such as Spain, France, Turkey, China, India, and South Africa.


  • Breeds in freshwater habitats such as lakes, ponds, and marshes with emergent vegetation.
  • During the non-breeding season, they can be found in a variety of aquatic habitats, including coastal areas, estuaries, and inland waters.


  • Construct floating nests made of plant material anchored to vegetation in the water.
  • Typically lay a clutch of eggs, and both parents take turns incubating them.


  • Primarily carnivorous, feeding on fish, insects, and crustaceans.
  • Skilled divers, capable of submerging and chasing prey underwater.


  • Some populations are migratory, traveling long distances between breeding and wintering grounds.
  • Migration routes may include stopovers at suitable wetlands.

Territorial Behaviour

  • Display territorial behavior during the breeding season, defending nesting sites.


  • The Black-necked Grebe, like many bird species, may be susceptible to diseases that can affect wild bird populations.
  • Specific diseases could include avian influenza, botulism, and other waterborne diseases.
  • Conservation efforts may include monitoring and managing disease risks, especially in areas with dense bird populations.

IUCN Status of Black-necked Grebe:

  • Black-necked Grebe is generally assessed as "Least Concern" on the IUCN Red List.
  • This designation suggests that the species is not currently facing a high risk of extinction.
  • Ongoing monitoring of populations, habitats, and potential threats is crucial for maintaining the species' conservation status.

Hokersar Wetland

  • Location: Hokersar Wetland is situated in the northern part of India, specifically in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Proximity: The wetland is near the city of Srinagar. The Hokersar wetland, which is the largest bird reserve in the Kashmir Valley is situated in the Jehlum River basin.
  • Aquatic Plants: Hokersar supports a variety of aquatic plants, including submerged and emergent species. These plants play a crucial role in providing habitat and food for the diverse fauna.
  • Marsh Vegetation: The wetland area likely features marshy vegetation adapted to the fluctuating water levels.
  • Avian Species: Hokersar is renowned for its significance as a bird sanctuary, hosting a wide variety of avian species, particularly during the migratory season. This may include waterfowl, waders, and other wetland birds.
  • Migratory Birds: Many migratory birds, including ducks, geese, and waders, visit Hokersar during their annual migration, making it an important site for birdwatching and conservation.
  • Fish and Invertebrates: The wetland provides a habitat for fish and invertebrates that form the basis of the food web.
  • Ramsar Site: Hokersar Wetland has been designated as a Ramsar Site, indicating its international importance for the conservation of wetland ecosystems.

Threats of Hokersar Wetland:

Urbanization and Encroachment:

  • Increasing human settlements and infrastructure development may lead to the encroachment of wetland areas, impacting the habitat for flora and fauna.


  • Discharge of pollutants from nearby human activities, agriculture, or industries can degrade water quality, affecting the health of the wetland ecosystem.

Climate Change:

  • Changes in climate patterns, including alterations in precipitation and temperature, can impact the hydrology of the wetland, affecting both flora and fauna.

Invasive Species:

  • The introduction of invasive plant species can outcompete native vegetation, altering the wetland's ecosystem dynamics.

Over-Extraction of Resources:

  • Overfishing or excessive harvesting of resources from the wetland can disrupt the balance of the ecosystem, affecting both flora and fauna.

Disturbance from Human Activities:

  • Recreational activities, boating, or other forms of human disturbance can disrupt nesting and feeding behaviors of birds and other wildlife.

Addressing these threats requires a comprehensive conservation strategy, involving local communities, government authorities, and environmental organizations. It also emphasizes the importance of sustainable development practices to ensure the long-term health and viability of Hokersar Wetland.


Q. Consider the following statements:

1.Black-necked Grebe is considered as Critically endangered in the IUCN Red List.

2.Black-necked Grebe is primarily carnivorous, feeding on fish, insects, and crustaceans.

3.Hokersar Wetland is situated in the Jehlum River basin.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) 3 only

D) All

Answer: A) 1 only