IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


4th October, 2023 Polity

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Picture Courtesy: www.hindustantimes.com

Context: According to the latest caste survey conducted by the Bihar government, the State has a diverse social composition with more than 63% of its population belonging to the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs).

Key Highlights of the Survey

  • According to a caste survey report, Bihar has a diverse population with different social groups. The report said that the Other Backward Class (OBC) group makes up 27.12% of the population, while the Extremely Backward Class (EBC) group accounts for 36.01%. The report also said that the Scheduled Caste (SC) group constitutes 19.65% of the population, while the Scheduled Tribe (ST) group represents 1.68%.
    • The report further said that the General Caste group comprises 15.5224% of the population.
    • The report also gave the religious breakdown of the population, stating that Hindus form 81.99% of the population, while Muslims are 17.70%.
  • The survey report, titled Bihar Jaati Adharit Ganana (Bihar caste-based survey), also revealed that the total population of the state is 13 crore.

Implication of the Caste survey data

Policy Formulation

Political parties are likely to incorporate the findings of the caste survey into their policy formulations and election manifestos. Promises and policies may be tailored to cater to the needs and demands of the predominant caste groups, especially OBCs and EBCs who comprise a significant portion of the population.

Alliance Dynamics

Understanding the exact caste composition enables political parties to form strategic alliances. Parties might align themselves with caste-based parties or groups, attempting to consolidate specific caste vote banks to maximize their chances of winning seats.

Candidate Selection

The data might influence the selection of candidates for different constituencies. Parties could choose candidates based on their caste backgrounds to appeal to the majority population in those areas.

Election campaigns might focus on specific issues and promises that resonate with the identified caste groups. Parties could highlight how their policies will benefit these groups, aiming to secure their votes.

Social Welfare Programs

The survey data can guide the implementation of social welfare programs. Resources might be allocated based on the demographics, focusing on the upliftment of economically backward sections among the identified castes.

Challenges and Controversies

The release of caste-based data can also lead to controversies and challenges. Disputes might arise regarding the accuracy of the data or the methods used for the survey, potentially leading to legal battles or social tensions.

Social Mobilization

Various caste groups might mobilize socially and politically based on this data. This mobilization can lead to increased awareness, activism, and demands for social, economic, and political rights.

National Political Impact

Bihar's caste dynamics can influence national politics, especially if certain caste-based alliances or issues gain prominence. National parties might align themselves with regional parties based on these caste equations.

Legal and Judicial Impact

The data might be used in legal and judicial matters related to reservations and affirmative action, potentially leading to changes in existing policies or the formulation of new ones.


  • While caste-based data can inform political strategies, it's equally vital for parties and policymakers to focus on inclusive development, social harmony, and addressing the needs of all communities to ensure balanced and equitable progress in the state.

Must Read Articles:

CASTE-BASED SURVEY IN BIHAR: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/caste-based-survey-in-bihar

CASTE CENSUS: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/caste-census-11

CASTE-BASED CENSUS: https://iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/caste-based-census


Q. According to the recent caste survey conducted by the Bihar government, the state's population is composed of diverse social groups, with over 63% belonging to the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs). Considering the implications highlighted, what challenges and opportunities could arise for political parties and policymakers in light of this demographic information, and how can the state ensure inclusive development and social harmony amid these dynamics?