IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


15th January, 2024 Security


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  • The Indian Army will celebrate the 76th Army Day on 15th January with a grand parade in Uttar Pradesh's capital city, Lucknow.


  • This marks the second consecutive year that the parade has been moved out of Delhi.
  • Indian Army Day is celebrated annually on January 15th, commemorating a historic moment in 1949 when Lieutenant General Kodandera M. Cariappa assumed command as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army, succeeding General Francis Roy Bucher, the last British Commander-in-Chief of India.
  • The parade will be held on January 15th, 2024, at the parade ground of the 11 Gorkha Rifles Regimental Centre in Lucknow.
  • The decision to move the parade to different cities aims to involve diverse regions in the celebration of Army Day.
  • A noteworthy feature of this year's parade is the use of AI to select the 'Best Marching Contingent.'
  • Gallantry awards will be presented by Army Chief General Manoj Pande, recognizing acts of bravery and valor.

Gallantry Awards

  • Post-independence, first three gallantry awards namely Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra were instituted by the Government of India on 26th January, 1950 which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947.
  • Thereafter, other three gallantry awards i.e. Ashoka Chakra Class-I, Ashoka Chakra Class-II and Ashoka Chakra Class-III were instituted by the Government of India on 4th January, 1952, which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947.
  • These awards were renamed as Ashoka Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Shaurya Chakra respectively in January, 1967.
  • These gallantry awards are announced twice in a year - first on the occasion of the Republic Day and then on the occasion of the Independence Day.
  • Order of precedence of these awards is the Param Vir Chakra, the Ashoka Chakra, the Mahavir Chakra, the Kirti Chakra, the Vir Chakra and the Shaurya Chakra.

Types of Gallantry Awards:

Param Vir Chakra (PVC):

  • Highest Military Decoration: PVC is the highest wartime military decoration, recognizing acts of conspicuous bravery in the presence of the enemy.
  • Symbolism: The award symbolizes the highest degree of valor and is often posthumously conferred.

Maha Vir Chakra (MVC):

  • Second-Highest Military Decoration: MVC is the second-highest military decoration for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy.
  • Recognition: It honors exceptional acts of bravery that significantly contribute to the defense of the nation.

Vir Chakra (VrC):

  • Gallantry in the Battlefield: VrC is awarded for acts of gallantry in the face of the enemy, distinguishing individuals for their bravery.
  • Varied Contexts: The awardees may include military personnel, both officers, and enlisted personnel.

Ashoka Chakra (AC):

  • Peacetime Equivalent: AC is the peacetime equivalent of the PVC, recognizing extraordinary valor, courage, or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield.
  • Inclusive Recognition: It includes civilians and military personnel, extending beyond war situations.

Kirti Chakra (KC):

  • Peacetime Gallantry: KC is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry during peacetime, emphasizing the valor displayed in non-war situations.
  • Civilian and Military Awardees: It extends to both civilian and military personnel.

Shaurya Chakra (SC):

  • Valorous Acts: SC is awarded for acts of bravery and courage in the presence of the enemy, not amounting to the level required for Vir Chakra.
  • Military and Civilian: It encompasses both military and civilian individuals.


Criteria for Awarding Gallantry Awards:

  • Exceptional Bravery: The primary criterion is the demonstration of exceptional bravery, often involving risking one's life for others.
  • Impact on Operations: The act should have a significant impact on military operations or contribute to the nation's security.
  • Risk and Sacrifice: Awardees have knowingly faced grave risks and made sacrifices beyond the call of duty.


The 76th Army Day Parade in Lucknow promises to be a grand celebration of India's military prowess, history, and the spirit of sacrifice. With its diverse events and displays, the parade not only honors the past but also showcases the Indian Army's commitment to excellence, modernization, and the use of cutting-edge technologies like Artificial Intelligence.


Q. What is the peacetime equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra?

A. Ashoka Chakra

B. Kirti Chakra

C. Shaurya Chakra

D. Vir Chakra

Answer: C