IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


18th April, 2023 MISCELLANEOUS

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Context: Finland's next-generation Olkiluoto 3 nuclear reactor has resumed normal production.


Olkiluoto 3 nuclear reactor

  • It is a 1600 MW EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) located on Olkiluoto Island, on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia, in Finland.
  • It is the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland and the first new one in over 40 years.
  • EPRs are advanced third-generation reactors that offer enhanced safety features, higher efficiency, and longer lifetimes than previous designs.
  • It will produce clean, reliable, and affordable electricity for at least 60 years, avoiding about 10 million tons of CO2 emissions per year compared to fossil fuels.
  • Finland has one of the highest shares of nuclear power in its electricity mix in Europe, with more than 40%.


  • It is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders;
    • Sweden to the northwest
    • Norway to the north
    • Russia to the east
    • Gulf of Bothnia to the west
    • Gulf of Finland to the south
  • It is known for its thousands of lakes, vast forests, and long winters, but also for its modern cities, innovative industries, and high quality of life.
  • Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and NATO in 2023.


Pressurized Water Reactor

  • One of the most common types is the pressurized water reactor (PWR), which accounts for about 65% of the world's nuclear power plants.
  • A PWR uses light water (ordinary water) as both a coolant and a moderator.
    • A moderator is a substance that slows down the neutrons produced by fission, making them more likely to cause further fission and sustain a chain reaction.
    • A coolant is a fluid that transfers heat from the reactor core to the steam generator, where it is used to produce steam that drives a turbine and a generator.
  • It has a high thermal efficiency (about 33%), a high power density (about 100 MW/m3), and a long fuel cycle (about 18 months).
  • It requires high-quality materials and components to withstand the high pressure and temperature of the primary loop. It also requires frequent inspections and maintenance of the steam generators, which are prone to corrosion and fouling.

Must Read Articles:

Nuclear power in India: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/nuclear-power-in-india

Nuclear power: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/nuclear-power#:~:text=A%20pressurized%20heavy%2Dwater%20reactor,use%20very%20low%20enriched%20uranium.


Q. Recently “Olkiluoto 3 nuclear reactor” was frequently mentioned in the news, it is located in which country?

(A)    Sweden

(B)    Norway

(C)    Finland

(D)   Denmark

Answer: C