IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


18th November, 2022 Culture

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Context:  On November 16, events to commemorate the martyrdom of Uda Devi, a freedom fighter from the Pasi community, were held at various places in Uttar Pradesh, including Sikandar Bagh in Lucknow. Dalit men and women from UP as well as Madhya Pradesh, Bengal, and Bihar gathered to pay homage to Uda Devi.


Who was Uda Devi?

  • Uda Devi is remembered not only for her stories of valour but also for her skill as a leader who managed to mobilise people — specially Dalit women — to take up arms against the British.
  • Born in Ujirao, Lucknow, she was part of the royal guard of Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh. Her husband, Makka Pasi, worked as a foot soldier in the army of Awadh’s Nawab, Wajid Ali Shah.
  • Hazrat Mahal’s palace had several women belonging to marginalised communities, and their occupation was mostly to take care of the needs of the royalty.
  • Some of them, who showed promise, were also trained as warriors. Uda Devi was one of them.
  • Amid the revolt of 1857, on June 10, at Chinhat near Ismailganj, a battle was fought between the army of Lucknow and the British troops led by Henry Lawrence, in which Makka Pasi lost his life. The death of her husband
  • On November 16, 1857, Uda Devi was among the soldiers who clashed with the British regiment stationed near the Gomti River. Although not much of the fight has been documented in history, it is said that Uda Devi killed at least three dozen British soldiers from atop a tree before she could be spotted.
  • British commander Campbell and W Gordon-Alexander were left in surprise when their soldiers were picked off one by one but no shooter could be located. After a while, they realised that the bullets were coming from a big Peepal tree, which was a spot for relaxation and shelter for the British troops.
  • A battalion shot this mysterious killer down and she landed on the ground, covered in blood. It was only when her helmet was removed that people realised that a woman was responsible for the killings.
  • Even British officials bowed in respect to Uda Devi, as mentioned in Crispin Bates and Marina Carter (edited), Mutiny at the Margins: New Perspectives on the Indian Uprising of 1857, Vol 7.
  • Today, a statute of her exists in Sikandar Bagh, Lucknow.