IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


20th March, 2020


State to study T.N., Bihar’s stand on ‘contentious’ NPR clause

Maharashtra decision:

-       Will visit Bihar and Tamil Nadu to study how the provisions can be implemented “in its 2010 form” with one amendment.

-       It decided that Maharashtra must reject the latest NPR amendments, including those related to the contentious clause related to ‘date and place of parents’ birth’.

Bihar and Tamil Nadu said the NPR should be implemented “in its 2010 form” with one amendment.

About NPR:

-       The National Population Register (NPR) is a register of the usual residents of the country.

-       It contains information collected at the local (village/sub-town), sub district, district, state and national level under provisions of the Citizenship Act, 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.

-       The process of updating NPR will be carried out under the aegis of the Registrar General and ex-Officio Census Commissioner, India.

Usual resident of India:

Is a person who has resided in a local area for the past six months or more, or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next six months.

About Registrar general of India:

-       Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs founded it in 1961, for arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.


Reference:  https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/state-to-study-tn-bihars-stand-on-contentious-npr-clause/article31113080.ece

National tag for ayurveda institute soon

Bill will accord the Jamnagar-based Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda the status of ‘institution of national importance’ by clubbing the cluster of ayurveda institutes at the Gujarat Ayurveda University campus in Jamnagar.

Institution of national importance:

-       Institute of National Importance (INI) is a status that may be conferred on a premier public higher education institution in India by an act of Parliament of India.

-       Institutes of National Importance receive special recognition and funding from the Government of India.

-       There are 73 such institutes, which are listed as Institutes of National importance declared by the department of higher Education.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/national-tag-for-ayurveda-institute-soon/article31113655.ece

SC orders floor test in Madhya Pradesh today

Court observation:

-       Every day of delay in conducting the floor test would be a win for horse-trading.

-       There is a modicum of authority with the Governor to call for a floor test.

-       The voting would be held by a “show of hands”.

-        The floor test would be videographed and, if possible, telecast live.

-       The floor test should be completed by 5 p.m.

Earlier judgements related to floor test:

-       In S R Bommai judgement it said, wherever a doubt arises whether the Council of Ministers has lost the confidence of the House, the only way of testing it is on the floor of the House.

-       In the same judgement, the verdict also categorically ruled that the floor of the Assembly is the only forum that should test the majority of the government of the day and not the subjective opinion of the Governor, who is often referred to as the agent of the Central government.

-       In Karnataka case, court observed that It’s just the number game, who enjoys the majority should be invited to form the government.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/sc-orders-floor-test-in-madhya-pradesh-today/article31113648.ece


Defence Ministry places order for 16,479 LMG

The Ministry of Defence (MoD) signed a รขโ€šยน880-crore contract with the Israeli Weapon Industries (IWI) for 16,479 Light Machine Guns (LMG).

About Light Machine Guns (LMG):

-       It is a combat-proven weapon and currently used by several countries.

-       It would greatly enhance the lethality and range of a soldier compared to the presently used weapon.

-       A light machine gun can be carried by a single person.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/defence-ministry-places-order-for-16479-lmg/article31115082.ece

Retailers face large-scale closures amid COVID-19 alert

Corona Impact:

-       Organised retailers, dealing with non-essential daily use items, are struggling to keep their business operations on.

-       According to retailers, authorities are not allowing stores located in densely populated areas to remain open.

-       The ban on the presence of more than 50 people at one place is preventing many large stores from remaining open as their employee strength itself is high.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/business/retailers-face-large-scale-closures-amid-covid-19-alert/article31111364.ece

New definition of MSMEs before end of Budget session: Nitin Gadkari

Government reply:

-       The government was working on the new definition.

-       The Micro Small Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector currently contributed 24% of the GDP growth and 48% of exports, with an annual turnover of Rs. 1 lakh crore this year.

-        A target of Rs.5 lakh crores in five years had been set.

Opposition suggestion:

-       MSME units should be defined based on turnover, as it would increase compatibility with the Goods and Services Tax (GST) system.

Challenges before MSME:

-       Pending payments by governments and public sector undertakings.

-       Demonetisation in 2016 and introduction of the GST in 2017 has weakened MSME financial positions.

About the MSME:

Definitions of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises In accordance with the provision of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) are classified in two Classes:

-       Manufacturing Enterprises-he enterprises engaged in the manufacture or production of goods pertaining to any industry specified in the first schedule to the industries (Development and regulation) Act, 1951) or employing plant and machinery in the process of value addition to the final product having a distinct name or character or use.

-       The Manufacturing Enterprise are defined in terms of investment in Plant & Machinery.

-       Service Enterprises: The enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services and are defined in terms of investment in equipment.


Investment in plant & machinery

Manufacturing Sector

Micro Enterprises

Does not exceed twenty five lakh rupees

Small Enterprises

More than twenty five lakh rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees

Medium Enterprises

More than five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees


Service Sector

Micro Enterprises

Does not exceed ten lakh rupees:

Small Enterprises

More than ten lakh rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees

Medium Enterprises

More than two crore rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/parliament-proceedings-new-definition-of-msmes-before-end-of-budget-session-nitin-gadkari/article31111066.ece


Narendra Modi calls for determination, patience and a ‘janata curfew’

Modi Comments

-       Urged Indians across the country to face the coronavirus pandemic with collective determination and patience.

-       The crisis is involving more countries than any previous natural or political crisis, even during World War I or World War II.

-       There was no clear treatment, medicine or vaccine that had been found to counter the novel coronavirus.

-       Urged people to give up the attitude that all was well or that they would, somehow, escape the disease.

-       Reiterated that enough supplies of necessities were available.

-       Government had set up a ‘COVID-19 Task Force” under Ms. Sitharaman to consult with stakeholders and come up with measures to address the crisis.

Calls in speech:

-       Self-imposed ‘janata curfew’ (people’s curfew) on March 22,

-       Not to resort to panic buying,

-       Asking senior citizens to stay indoors,

-       Social distancing,

-       Avoiding elective surgery or routine health check-ups to not over burden health services,

-       Asking employers to pay employees in full when they have to stay home

-       To stay away from rumours.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/coronavirus-narendra-modi-calls-for-determination-patience-and-a-janata-curfew/article31111259.ece

Explained: As world battles coronavirus pandemic, a few takeaways emerge

Importance of testing:

-       Examples of China and South Korea have shown that countries give themselves a fighting chance when they take steps that assume they’re worse off than they appear to be.

-       Aggressive steps that look like an overreaction could, therefore, be just the right thing to do.

-       Testing is central, because that leads to early detection, it minimizes further spread, and it quickly treats those found with the virus.

Importance of Contract tracing:

-       Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong have shown that running detailed forensic investigations into every patient’s history of recent contacts, followed by tracking them down and, if required, quarantining them, helps.

-       The South Koreans have used apps and GPS tagging of patients and gone through location and credit card transaction histories.

Importance of free healthcare:

-       Analysts have note that in South Korea and China, where healthcare is heavily subsidised or paid for by the state, people have come forward to test and be treated.

-       In the United States, by contrast, the enormous costs of healthcare nudge people to avoid coming forward, or to wait for long even after symptoms appear.

Importance of timing:

-       Italy waited too long to impose the lockdown and by then COVID-19 had spread too far and too deep for its healthcare systems to handle.

-       An analysis in The New York Times by Max Fisher and Amanda Taub on the lessons from the coronavirus pandemic mentions a study that used computer modelling to show that had China implemented its testing and lockdown policies a week earlier, 66% of infections would have been prevented — and had it acted three weeks earlier, 95% of infections would not have occurred.

Impact of inequality:

-       Several studies have shown that in an epidemic, the risk of infection and death is greater for everyone in societies that have greater wealth and income inequality.

-       Epidemics do not respect the physical and social barriers between a society’s haves and have-nots, and therefore, everyone faces higher risks of infection.

Reference: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/as-world-battles-coronavirus-pandemic-a-few-takeaways-emerge-6322830/