IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


4th February, 2020


NPR will hit homeless people: NCU

National Coalition for Inclusive and Sustainable Urbanisation (NCU) survey findings:

-       National Population Register and the National Register for Citizens will adversely impact 1.77 million homeless people in India.

-       99 per cent of all homeless persons do not have birth certificates.

-       30 percent of urban homeless population do not have any identity proof.

-       Nomadic and de-notified tribes, migrants from rural areas will not be able to produce the birth certificate.

-       The burden of proof of citizenship should not fall on citizens but on the State.

-       NPR-NRC exercise will directly target the unorganised sector workers, homeless people, migrant workers, basti dwellers and transgender persons.

About NPR:

-       The National Population Register (NPR) is a register of the usual residents of the country.

-       It contains information collected at the local (village/sub-town), sub district, district, state and national level under provisions of the Citizenship Act, 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.

-       The process of updating NPR will be carried out under the aegis of the Registrar General and ex-Officio Census Commissioner, India.

Usual resident of India:

Is a person who has resided in a local area for the past six months or more, or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next six months.

About Registrar general of India:

-       Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs founded it in 1961, for arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.


Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/npr-will-hit-homeless-people-ncu/article30729703.ece


Towards cooperative federalism


-       11 states have opposed the NRC.

-       State of West Bengal and Kerala have stopped all work on NPR.

-       Punjab assembly passed a resolution seeking amendment to NPR form for non-inclusion of parent’s birth.

Challenges for the States:

-       Under Article 355 of the constitution, government of every state needs to be carried out in provision of constitution.

-       Union can declare president rule in the state under article 356 for violation of constitution by the state.

-       States cannot hold the union government accountable towards the constitution.

-       Union government has already asserted that states are constitutionally bound to implement the law.

-       Withholding the state’s consent for implementation of union laws creates challenges for implementation of federalism in India.

States Rights:

-       All the government whether union or state are bound by the constitutional provisions. It makes states constitutionally right to oppose the union when it is abrogating the constitution.

-       Constitution makes India as Union of states, which means that states are indispensable for working of the constitution.

-       In S.R. Bommai case, Supreme Court has upheld that states are separate legislative unit and not mere administrative appendages. They are not only the implementing agencies of the government laws.

-       What set Union Territories apart from States are the exclusive and distinct legislative and administrative competences of the States, to be acted through their three organs of government.

-       The Union, in compelling States to implement the NPR by ignoring the widespread dissent against it will be interfering with these exclusive powers of States.

Way Forward:

-       The Union government can include States in decisions making and enforcing.

-       The Union must develop newer conventions to foster cooperation.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/towards-cooperative-federalism/article30729075.ece

Maharashtra records highest number of missing women: NCRB



Finding of NCRB:

-       Highest number of women and children who go missing in the country are from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh respectively.

-       The two States recorded the maximum number of cases of missing children and women among all other States in the years 2016, 2017 and 2018.

-       The NCRB study was based on the annual Crime in India Report compiled by the agency for the years 2016, 2017 and 2018.

Need for study:

-       Study aims to identify the areas where registered cases of missing persons, specifically women and children, are higher than in other areas.

-       Incidents of missing women and children are not uniform across the country.

Definition of missing person:

Some young people run away from home due to unbearable conditions of abuse and maltreatment. They become vulnerable to trafficking, violence, drug addiction, prostitution and other risks of exploitation and involvement in crime.

About NCRB:

-       The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL)

-       NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.

-       NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.

Objectives of NCRB:

-       Create and maintain secure sharable National Databases on crimes and criminals for law enforcement agencies and promote their use for public service delivery.

-       Collect and process crime statistics at the national level and clearing house of information on crime and criminals both at National and International levels.

-       Lead and coordinate development of IT applications and create an enabling IT environment for Police organizations.

-       National repository of fingerprints of all criminals to evaluate, modernize and promote automation in State Crime Records Bureau and State Finger Print Bureau.

-       Training and capacity building in Police Forces in Information Technology and Finger Print Science.



Siachen troops given poor gear: CAG
Finding of CAG report:

-       There were delays of up to four years in the procurement of high-altitude clothing and equipment, leading to an acute shortage of essential clothing and equipment.

-       There was a critical shortage of snow goggles, ranging from 62% to 98%.

-       The troops had not been issued ‘multi-purpose boots’ from November 2015 to September 2016.

-       Procurement of Old models of facemask, jacket and sleeping bags were not letting troops get the benefit of using improved products.

-       Lack of research and development by defence laboratory led to a continued dependence on import.

-       The housing project, aimed at improving the living conditions of the troops in high-altitude areas, was executed in an ad hoc manner.

About CAG:

Constitutional Provisions:

Article 148:

-       There shall be a Comptroller and Auditor-General of India who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.

-       Shall only be removed from office in like manner and on like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court.

-       The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall not be eligible for further office either under the Government of India or under the Government of any State after he has ceased to hold his office.

Article 150:

-       The accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as the President may, on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, prescribe.

Article 151: Audit Reports:

-       The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of the Union shall be submitted to the president, who shall cause them to be laid before each House of Parliament.

-       The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of a State shall be submitted to the Governor of the State, who shall cause them to be laid before the Legislature of the State.

Sixth Schedule:

-       The accounts of the District Council or, as the case may be, the Regional Council shall be kept in such form as the Comptroller and Auditor General of India may, with the approval of the President, prescribe.

-       The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall cause the accounts of the District and Regional Councils to be audited in such manner as he may think fit, and the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor who shall cause them to be laid before the Council.


-       Receipts and expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India and of the State and Union Territory having legislative assembly.

-       Trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts and balance sheets, and other subsidiary accounts kept in any Government department; Accounts of stores and stock kept in Government offices or departments.

-       Government companies as per the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

-       Corporations established by or under laws made by Parliament in accordance with the provisions of the respective legislation.

-       Authorities and bodies substantially financed from the Consolidated Funds of the Union and State Governments. Anybody or authority even though not substantially financed from the Consolidated Fund, the audit of which may be entrusted to the C&AG.

-       Grants and loans given by Government to bodies and authorities for specific purposes.

-       Entrusted audits e.g. those of Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies under Technical Guidance & Support (TGS).

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/siachen-troops-given-poor-gear-cag/article30728491.ece


Delhi extends reach in IOR with Madagascar relief effort

About Operation Vanilla:

-       INS Airavat delivered relief material including food, clothing, medicines and water.

-       It was conducted due to the devastation in Madagascar due to flooding after a cyclone and heavy rains in the island’s north-west left at least 31 dead and affected nearly 100,000 people.

“Vanilla islands”:

-       It includes Madagascar, as well as Comoros and the French island of Reunion.

-       Delhi has included Vanilla islands in the Indian Ocean region in the recent structural changes at MEA.

-       India is pursuing SAGAR framework (Security and growth for Indian Ocean region).

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/delhi-extends-reach-in-ior-with-madagascar-relief-effort/article30728418.ece


Centre to bar domestic RO systems in places where tap water meets BIS norms

The Union Environment Ministry has published a draft notification that prohibits users from installing membrane-based water purification, mainly reverse osmosis, systems in their homes if the water has been sourced from a supply that meets the Bureau of Indian Standards’ drinking water norms.

Government arguments:

-       Order to comply with an order of the National Green Tribunal, which has prohibited the use of reverse osmosis (RO) purifiers in places where total dissolved solids (TDS) in the supplied water are below 500 mg per litre.

-       RO system wasted water and in the process of removing salts, they often deprived drinking water of essential salts.

-       RO while useful in reducing salts does not tackle bacterial agents or trace chemicals and manufacturers often claim that additional filtration is required to deliver potable water.

-       Users will not be prosecuted for installing RO systems.

BIS regulations:

-       It considers 500 mg/litre—1,200 mg/l of total dissolved solids, which consists of salts and some organic matter, as acceptable though there is no lower limit.

-       It puts the onus on commercial bottlers, who make RO water, to ensure that water that is lost in the RO production process is stored in “safe, hygienic” conditions.

-       RO manufacturers can only supply home purification systems that waste no more than 25% of the water.

-       These systems must be able to inform consumers of the TDS levels at the inlet and water outlet.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-to-bar-domestic-ro-systems-in-places-where-tap-water-meets-bis-norms/article30728356.ece


Manufacturing activity reaches a near 8-year high in January

IHS Markit Survey finding:

-       Manufacturing sector activity climbed to a near eight-year high in January.

-       It was driven by a sharp rise in new business orders amid a rebound in demand conditions, which led to a rise in production and hiring activity.

-       January saw growth of new business, output, exports, input buying and employment.

-       Business sentiment strengthened and there were softer rises in both input costs and output charges.

-       Manufacturing Purchasing Managers’ Index rose from 52.7 in December to 55.3 in January.

-       This is the 30th consecutive month the index has remained above the 50-point mark.

-       The rise in total sales was supported by strengthening demand from external markets, evident from the fastest increase in new export orders since November 2018.

About PMI:

-       Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an indicator of business activity -- both in the manufacturing and services sectors.

-       It is a survey-based measure that asks the respondents about changes in their perception of some key business variables (New Orders, Output, Employment, Stocks of Purchases etc.) from the month before.

-       The headline PMI is a number from 0 to 100. A PMI above 50 represents an expansion when compared to the previous month. A PMI reading under 50 represents a contraction, and a reading at 50 indicates no change.

-       It is calculated separately for the manufacturing and services sectors and then a composite index is constructed.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/business/Industry/manufacturing-activity-reaches-a-near-8-year-high-in-january/article30728786.ece

Will not splurge to end slowdown, says Nirmala Sitharaman

The government was not going to repeat past mistakes and try to splurge its way out of the economic slowdown, in an apparent reference to the UPA government’s response to the major slowdown in 2008-09.

Finance Minister’s comment:

-       Money will be spent with a clear picture of public asset creation — such assets will bring greater connectivity.

-       Government had pushed the fiscal deficit target to 6.7% of GDP to bring back the economy in 2008-09. However, growth had tapered down in 2011-12.

Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/business/budget/will-not-splurge-to-end-slowdown-says-nirmala-sitharaman/article30728794.ece


nCoV outbreak declared a State calamity in Kerala

With the confirmation of a third case of the novel corona virus (nCoV) infection in the State, Kerala declared the epidemic a State calamity.

Government action:

-       Suspected cases had been admitted to isolation wards.

-       Government temporarily suspended the e-visa facility for Chinese and foreigners residing in China.

-       Indian citizens have been asked to refrain from travel to China.


About corona virus:



Reference: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/kerala-declares-coronavirus-as-state-calamity-after-third-positive-case/article30728355.ece