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NATIONAL PARKS IN INDIA

3rd September, 2021 Prelims

National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.

There are 105 existing national parks in India covering an area of 43,716 km2, which is 1.33% of the geographical area of the country (National Wildlife Database, Dec. 2020).

Name

State

Year formed

Notable Features

Fauna

Rivers and lakes inside the national park

Anamudi Shola National Park[1]

Kerala

2003

The park is administered by Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Pampadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary, with Anamudi Shola providing connectivity between all these protected areas.

Elephant, Tiger, Nilgiri tahr, Gaur, Spotted Deer, Sambar, Grizzled Giant Squirrel, Hanuman Langur, Sloth Bear, Flying Squirrels

Pambar River

Anshi National Park

Karnataka

1987

Part of Kali Tiger Reserve

Great hornbill, tiger, leopard, black panther, bear, elephant.

Kali River (Karnataka)

Balphakram National Park

Meghalaya

1986

Balphakram means 'land of the eternal wind' according to the myth of the Garos.

Wild water buffalo, red panda, elephant and eight cat species, including the tiger and marbled cat

Bandhavgarh National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1982

Very high tiger density, so the saying : "In any other Park, you are lucky if you see a tiger. In Bandhavgarh, you are unlucky if you don't see (at least) one."

Gaurs reintroduced from Kanha National Park

Bengal tiger, striped hyena, caracal, gaur, sambar deer, nilgai, barking deer, chital,

Omkareshwar National Park

Madhya Pradesh

2004

Bandipur National Park

Karnataka

1974

Dry deciduous forest is dominant. Also include moist deciduous forests and shrublands.

Together with the adjoining Nagarhole National Park , Mudumalai National Park and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, it is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Invasive Alien Species - Lantana bush, Parthenium

Chital, Bengal tiger, gray langurs, Indian giant squirrel, gaur, leopard, sambar deer, Indian elephants, honey buzzard, red-headed vulture

Kabini River, Moyar River

Bannerghatta National Park

Karnataka

1986

The park is part of a wildlife corridor for elephants which connects the BR Hills and the Sathyamangalam forest.

Moist deciduous forest valleys and scrubland on higher areas

Tiger, sloth bear, peacock, elephant, sambar deer, mouse deer

Betla National Park

Jharkhand

1999

Tiger, Indian bison, elephant, hyenas, monkey, leopard

North Koyal River

Bhitarkanika National Park

Odisha

1988

A ramsar site

Mangroves, saltwater crocodile, white crocodile, Indian python, black ibis, wild pigs, rhesus monkeys, olive ridley sea turtle, chital

Brahmani River, Baitarani River, Dhamra River, Pathsala

Bison (Rajbari) National Park

Tripura

2007

Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar

Gujarat

1976

Used to be a cheetah hunting ground

Has largest population of lesser florican

A grassland ecosystem

Successful conservation programs for the blackbuck, wolf and lesser florican (a bustard) are ongoing

Blackbucks, the endangered Indian grey wolf, the nocturnal striped hyena, Indian fox, golden jackal, jungle cat and many small mammals like hare, gerbil, field mice, mongoose and hedgehog.

Buxa Tiger Reserve

West Bengal

1992

Nothern boundary along international border with Bhutan and eastern boundary touches Assam

The fragile "Terai Eco-System" constitutes a part of this reserve

The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary of Bhutan is contiguous to the north of Buxa, Manas National Park lies on east of Buxa

Buxa, serves as an international corridor for Asian elephant migration between India and Bhutan

Rajabhatkhawa Vulture Breeding Centre was established by Bombay Natural History Society to emulate the success of Jatayu Conservation Breeding Centre, Pinjore

Indian leopard, Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, giant squirrel, gaur, chital and wild boar

Eurasian griffon, Amur falcon

Endangered species include leopard cat, Bengal florican, regal python, Chinese pangolin, hispid hare, hog deer lesser adjutant, white-rumped vulture, slender-billed vulture, chestnut-breasted partridge, rufous necked hornbill, ferruginous pochard and great hornbill

Campbell Bay National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1992

Chandoli National Park

Maharashtra

2004

Clouded Leopard National Park

Tripura

2003

Dachigam National Park

Jammu and Kashmir

1981

Only area where Kashmir stag is found[3]

Desert National Park

Rajasthan

1980

Great Indian bustard

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park

Assam

1999

Feral horse

Brahmaputra, Lohit River, Dibru

Dehing Patkai National Park

Assam

2020

Dihing river

Raimona National Park

Assam

2021

Dudhwa National Park

Uttar Pradesh

1977

Tiger, Sambar deer, hog deer

Eravikulam National Park[4]

Kerala

1978

Declared a Sanctuary in 1975 with the intention of protecting the indigenous population of Nilgiri Tahr

The land of “Neelakurinji”, the flower that blooms once in twelve years

Anamudi, the highest peak of western ghats, is located here

Vegetation - Rolling grasslands, with shola forests in upper parts

Nilgiri tahr, Neelakurinji

lion-tailed macaques, gaur, Indian muntjac and sambar deer

Pambar River (Kerala)

Galathea National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1992

Gangotri National Park

Uttarakhand

1989

Gaumukh Glacier

Ganga

Gir Forest National Park

Gujarat

1975

Asiatic lion

Hiran, Shetrunji River, Datardi, Shingoda, Machhundri, Godavari and Raval

Gorumara National Park

West Bengal

1994

The park is rich in large herbivores including Indian rhinoceros, gaur, Asian elephant, sloth bear, chital, and sambar deer

Jaldhaka, Naora

Govind Pashu Vihar National Park

Uttarakhand

1955

Great Himalayan National Park

Himachal Pradesh

1984

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Gugamal National Park

Maharashtra

1987

Guindy National Park

Tamil Nadu

1976

Has more than 2000 chitals, 493 blackbucks and 84 jackals.

Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park

Tamil Nadu

1980

has 8 species of whales and 21 small coral islands

Guru Ghasidas National Park

Chhattisgarh

1981

Largest national park of chhattisgarh

Hemis National Park

Ladakh

1981

Largest National park in India

Inderkilla National Park

Himachal Pradesh

2010

Indira Gandhi Sanctuary and National Park

Tamil Nadu

1989

Tigers, leopards, elephants, wildboars, deers, dhole.

Indravati National Park

Chhattisgarh

1981

Wild Asian buffalo, tiger reserve, hill mynas

Jaldapara National Park

West Bengal

2012

Indian rhinoceros

Jim Corbett National Park

Uttarakhand

1936

First national park in India (established in 1936 as Hailey National Park).

Report titled  ‘Status of Tigers Co-predators and Prey in India’, released by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for 2018-19 revealed that national park has 14 tigers per 100 square kilometers which is highest in India.

Ramganga

Kalesar National Park

Haryana

2003

Yamuna

Kanha National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1955

Barasingha or swamp deer

Kanger Ghati National Park

Chhattisgarh

1982

Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park

Telangana

1994

Kaziranga National Park

Assam

1974

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Indian rhinoceros

Keibul Lamjao National Park

Manipur

1977

Only floating park in the world

Loktak Lake

Keoladeo National Park

Rajasthan

1981

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Khangchendzonga National Park

Sikkim

1977

UNESCO World Heritage Site. Houses the third highest peak on the planet, Mt. Kangchenjunga. The Zemu glacier, one of the largest in Asia, is located within the park.

musk deer, snow leopard, Himalayan tahr, dhole, sloth bear, viverrids, Himalayan black bear, red panda, Tibetan wild ass, Himalayan blue sheep, serow, goral and takin

Teesta (to the east)

Khirganga National Park

Himachal Pradesh

2010

Kishtwar National Park

Jammu and Kashmir

1981

Kudremukh National Park

Karnataka

1987

Kuno National Park

Madhya Pradesh

2018

Asiatic Lion Reintroduction Project, India's first cheetah sanctuary

Madhav National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1959

Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1983

Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park

Telangana

1994

Manas National Park

Assam

1990

UNESCO World Heritage Site, contiguous with Royal Manas National Park, Bhutan. 2 types of biomes - grasslands biome and forest biome. Rhinos were reintroduced in 2008 under Indian Rhino Vision from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary and Kaziranga National Park

Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog

Manas

Mandla Plant Fossils National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1983

Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch

Gujarat

1980

Threat - Coral bleaching

Corals, sponges, jellyfish, endangered sea turtles such as green sea turtles, olive ridleys and leatherbacks, dugongs, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, blue whales

Mathikettan Shola National Park

Kerala

2003

The park is located between other reserve forests like Eravikulam National Park and Pampadam Shola National Park

Elephants

Middle Button Island National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1987

moist deciduous forest surrounded by sandy beaches and shallow seas with clear water

Corals, dugongs, dolphins, sea turtles, blue whales, spotted deer, water lizards and monitor lizards

Mollem National Park

Goa

1978

contains several important temples dating to the Kadambas of Goa, and home to waterfalls, such as Dudhsagar Falls and Tambdi Falls.

Mouling National Park

Arunachal Pradesh

1986

Forms the western part of Dihang-Dibang biosphere reserve

takin, goral, Indian leopard, Bengal tiger, barking deer, serow and red panda

Siyom (to the west)

Mount Harriet National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1987

Important bird area as attributed by BirdLife International

Andaman wild pigs (an endangered species), saltwater crocodiles, turtles and robber crabs. The park is also a butterfly hotspot.

Mrugavani National Park

Telangana

1994

Mudumalai National Park

Tamil Nadu

1940

Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Second oldest National Park in India. Largest National Park in Tamil Nadu.

Indian leopard, dhole, golden jackal, sloth bear, Indian elephants, gray langur, Lion tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, gaur, sambar deer, chital deer, Indian muntjac, Indian spotted chevrotain, wild boar

Rodents include the Indian giant squirrel and the red giant flying squirrel

Moyar River

Mukundra Hills National Park

Rajasthan

2006

National Chambal Sanctuary is part of the national park

Mukurthi National Park

Tamil Nadu

2001

Part of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is also UNESCO World Heritage Site.The park was created to protect its keystone species, the Nilgiri tahr

characterized by montane grasslands and shrublands interspersed with sholas

Nilgiri tahr

Murlen National Park

Mizoram

1991

Nagarhole National Park

Karnataka

1988

Kabini reservoir separates Nagarhole from Bandipur National Park

Carnivores - Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, dhole, sloth bear and the striped hyena.

Herbivores - chital, sambar deer, barking deer, four-horned antelope , gaur, wild boar, and Indian elephant.

Other mammals - gray langur, bonnet macaque, jungle cat, leopard cat, slender loris, small Indian civet and Asian palm civet , Indian brown mongoose and stripe-necked mongoose, European otter, Indian giant flying squirrel, Indian giant squirrel, porcupine, golden jackal, chevrotain, hare and Indian pangolin

Namdapha National Park

Arunachal Pradesh

1974

The national park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude.

The park is located between the Dapha bum range of the Mishmi Hills and the Patkai range

Easternmost National Park of India

The area falls under both the Palearctic and Indo Malayan biogeographic areas

Vegetation zones from evergreen, moist deciduous to temperate broadleaved and coniferous forest types to alpine vegetation

Namdapha flying squirrel, red panda, dhole, Malayan sun bear, Indian wolf, Asiatic black bear, gaur, stump-tailed macaque, Assamese macaque and rhesus macaque.

Noa Dihing River

Nameri National Park

Assam

1978

Nanda Devi National Park

Uttarakhand

1982

UNESCO World Heritage Site, UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve

Navegaon National Park

Maharashtra

1975

Neora Valley National Park

West Bengal

1986

Nokrek National Park

Meghalaya

1986

UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve

North Button Island National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1979

Ntangki National Park

Nagaland

1993

Orang National Park

Assam

1999

Named Rajiv Gandhi National Park in 1992, but rolled back because of public opposition

Pambadum Shola National Park

Kerala

2003

Forms part of Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary

It is a part of Palani hills

Keystone species - Nilgiri Marten

Nilgiri marten, Nilgiri wood pigeon, Nilgiri langur, Nilgiri flycatcher, Blue rock-thrush

Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1981

Papikonda National Park

Andhra Pradesh

2008

Royal Bengal Tiger, Leopards, rusty-spotted cat, King Cobra

It is an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area and home to some endangered species of flora and fauna.[5]

Godavari river

Pench National Park[6]

Madhya Pradesh

1977

Rudyard Kipling's 'Jungle Book' was set in this NP.

Periyar National Park

Kerala

1982

An elephant reserve and a tiger reserve

Located high in the Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats

The sanctuary surrounds Periyar Lake, a reservoir that formed when the Mullaperiyar Dam was erected in 1895.

The park is made up of tropical evergreen and moist deciduous forests, grasslands and stands of eucalyptus

Malabar parakeet, Malabar grey hornbill, Nilgiri laughing thrush, Nilgiri blue robin, great hornbill, Malabar pied hornbill, lion-tailed macaque, hairy-winged bat

Periyar river, Pamba river

Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park

Mizoram

1992

Chhimtuipui River

Pin Valley National Park

Himachal Pradesh

1987

Rajaji National Park

Uttarakhand

1983

Mainly known for elephants, tigers, leopards and several species of birds, reptiles and mammals.

Penna river

Rajiv Gandhi National Park (Rameswaram)

Andhra Pradesh

2005

Rani Jhansi Marine National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1996

Ranthambore National Park

Rajasthan

1981

Tiger Reserve.

Saddle Peak National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1979

Salim Ali National Park

Jammu and Kashmir

1992

Sanjay National Park[7]

Madhya Pradesh

1981

Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Maharashtra

1983

Indian Leopard, Rhesus Macaque, Bonnet Macaque, Spotted Deer, Hanuman Langur, Indian Flying Fox, Indian Hare, Barking Deer, Porcupine, Palm Civet, Mouse Deer

Sariska Tiger Reserve

Rajasthan

1955

Satpura National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1981

Silent Valley National Park[8]

Kerala

1980

Located in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Contiguous with the proposed Karimpuzha National Park to the north and Mukurthi National Park to the north-east

Home to the largest population of lion-tailed macaques

Famous for "Save Silent Valley" movement

4 forest types : 1. West-coast tropical evergreen forest (600 to 1100 m), 2. Southern subtropical broad leaved hill forest (1300 to 1800 m), 3. Southern montane wet temperate forest (above 1900 m) and 4. Grassland.

Indian bison, Travancore flying squirrel, Salim Ali's fruit bat, Stripe-necked mongoose, Blue-winged parakeet, Crimson-backed sunbird

Kunthipuzha River

Simbalbara National Park

Himachal Pradesh

2010

Sirohi National Park

Manipur

1982

Simlipal National Park

Odisha

1980

Tiger, leopard, Asian elephant, sambar, barking deer, gaur, jungle cat, wild boar

Singalila National Park

West Bengal

1986

South Button Island National Park

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

1987

Dugong, dolphin, water monitor lizard, blue whale and smallest National park in India

Sri Venkateswara National Park

Andhra Pradesh

1989

Sultanpur National Park

Haryana

1989

Sundarbans National Park

West Bengal

1984

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Tadoba National Park

Maharashtra

1955

Tiger

Valley of Flowers National Park

Uttarakhand

1982

UNESCO World Heritage Site, Most beautiful national park in the world

Valmiki National Park

Bihar

1976

Tiger Reserve

Vansda National Park

Gujarat

1979

Leopard, Dhole, Rhesus Macaque, Common Palm Civet, Hanuman Langur, Small Indian Civet, Four-Horned Antelope, Wild Boar, Indian Porcupine, Barking Deer, Striped Hyena, Jungle Cat, Flying Squirrel, Pangolin and Indian Giant Squirrel.

Van Vihar National Park

Madhya Pradesh

1983




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