IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


30th June, 2023 Geography

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  • The unveiling of the first-ever report on "Critical Minerals for India" by the Union Minister of Coal, Mines & Parliamentary Affairs, Shri Pralhad Joshi.


  • The Union Minister of Coal, Mines & Parliamentary Affairs, Shri Pralhad Joshi, recently unveiled the first-ever report on "Critical Minerals for India."
  • The report aims to identify and prioritize minerals essential for various industrial sectors and aligns with India's vision of self-reliance and a robust mineral sector.

Identification of Critical Minerals

  • For the first time, India has identified a comprehensive list of critical minerals, considering the requirements of sectors such as defense, agriculture, energy, pharmaceuticals, and telecommunications.
  • The effort to identify critical minerals is part of India's roadmap for self-reliance, emphasizing the importance of domestic availability and security of mineral resources.

India's Partnership in Mineral Security

  • India has become the newest partner in the coveted Mineral Security Partnership, aimed at strengthening critical mineral supply chains.
  • The partnership was highlighted during Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi's recent successful visit to the United States.

Identification of 30 Critical Minerals

  • The report unveiled by Minister Shri Pralhad Joshi discloses the identification of 30 critical minerals for India.
  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) is currently focused on exploring critical and deep-seated minerals to promote growth in the mining sector.

Addressing Environmental Commitments

  • International commitments to reducing carbon emissions necessitate a reevaluation of India's mineral requirements for energy transition and net-zero commitments.
  • The Ministry of Mines will periodically revisit the critical mineral list to align with evolving environmental commitments.

Event Details

  • The event was attended by prominent dignitaries, including foreign dignitaries, industry representatives, subject matter experts, and senior government officials.
  • The event showcased the highlights of the Critical Minerals report through a short documentary, with major critical minerals on display.

Significance of the Critical Minerals List

  • The release of the Critical Minerals List marks a milestone in India's pursuit of self-reliance and security in the domain of mineral resources.
  • The meticulously compiled list will serve as a guiding framework for policy formulation, strategic planning, and investment decisions in the mining sector.
  • The identified critical minerals are essential for various industrial sectors, including high-tech electronics, telecommunications, transportation, and defense.

List of Critical Minerals

The list of critical minerals is as follows:

Antimony, Beryllium, Bismuth, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Germanium, Graphite, Hafnium, Indium, Lithium, Molybdenum, Niobium, Nickel, PGE, Phosphorous, Potash, REE, Rhenium, Silicon, Strontium, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Zirconium, Selenium and Cadmium.

About Minerals Available in India

  • India is rich in mineral resources, with diverse geological formations and a wide range of minerals.

Metallic Minerals

  • Iron Ore: India is one of the largest producers and exporters of iron ore, with significant reserves located in states like Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, and Jharkhand.
  • Bauxite: India possesses substantial reserves of bauxite, primarily found in Odisha, Gujarat, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, which are used in the production of aluminum.
  • Copper: Copper deposits are found in states like Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka, supporting the growth of the copper industry.

Non-Metallic Minerals

  • Coal: India has vast coal reserves, primarily located in states like Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and West Bengal. It plays a crucial role in meeting the country's energy requirements.
  • Limestone: Abundant limestone reserves are found in states like Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh, supporting the cement and steel industries.
  • Phosphates: Rich phosphate deposits are found in states like Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, used in the production of fertilizers.

Precious and Semi-Precious Minerals

  • Diamond: India is known for its diamond industry, with significant diamond reserves found in states like Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat.
  • Gold: Gold deposits are found in various regions of India, including Karnataka, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Gems and Gemstones: India has a rich variety of gemstones, including emeralds, rubies, sapphires, and garnets, found in different parts of the country.

Industrial Minerals

  • Mica: India is the largest producer of mica in the world, with major reserves located in states like Jharkhand, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Feldspar: Significant feldspar deposits are found in states like Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, used in ceramics and glass industries.
  • Silica Sand: Abundant silica sand deposits are found in coastal regions of India, primarily used in glass manufacturing and construction.

Energy Minerals

  • Uranium: India has significant uranium reserves, primarily found in states like Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan, supporting the nuclear energy sector.
  • Thorium: India possesses the world's largest thorium reserves, primarily located in coastal regions of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, contributing to the country's nuclear program.
  • Natural Gas: India has substantial natural gas reserves, found both onshore and offshore, supporting the energy sector and industrial activities.


Q) Analyze the key metallic, non-metallic, and energy minerals available in India, highlighting their economic importance and utilization in different sectors. (150 words)