IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


28th August, 2023 Science and Technology

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  • The recent launch of the NASA SpaceX Crew-7 mission, involving astronauts from the US, Denmark, Japan, and Russia.


Diverse Astronaut Team

  • The Crew-7 mission is notable for its diverse team, with astronauts hailing from different countries.
  • Such international cooperation has been a hallmark of the ISS program, initiated in 1998, and underscores the united efforts of countries like the US, Russia, Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agency.

Astronaut Profiles and Roles

Jasmin Moghbeli (USA): A trailblazer with a background in aerospace engineering and military service, Moghbeli serves as the mission commander. Her journey from an Iranian family's displacement during the 1979 revolution to leading a space mission exemplifies the diversity and inclusivity of space exploration.

Andreas Mogensen (Denmark): A representative of the European Space Agency, Mogensen brings a unique perspective with a doctorate in aerospace engineering and offshore work experience. As the pilot of Crew-7, he holds a critical role in ensuring the spacecraft's systems and performance during the mission.


Satoshi Furukawa (Japan): A seasoned space traveler, Furukawa's medical background and experience as a surgeon contribute to the interdisciplinary nature of space research. His return to space after a decade further solidifies the continuity of international space collaboration.

Konstantin Borisov (Russia): Borisov's journey from engineering to freediving and now space underscores the multidimensional qualities of modern astronauts. His contributions highlight the versatility needed for the complex challenges of space missions.

Scientific and Technological Objectives

The Crew-7 mission isn't just a symbolic representation of global unity; it is a platform for scientific exploration. The astronauts' stay on the ISS will encompass over 200 experiments and technology demonstrations. This vast array of research aims to address key challenges and questions related to space exploration:

Preparation for Lunar and Martian Missions: The experiments conducted by the crew will provide insights into various aspects of long-duration space travel. Findings related to physiological changes, brain wave analysis during sleep, and microbial studies are essential for preparing for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

Sustainability and Resource Management: Examining the formation of biofilms in wastewater and investigating improved methods for water recycling demonstrates the practical considerations for maintaining sustainability and resource management in space environments.

Interdisciplinary Research: The interdisciplinary nature of the research, involving engineering, medicine, and biology, highlights the complexity of challenges faced in space. This breadth of research mirrors the holistic approach required for successful space missions.

About ISS

  • The International Space Station (ISS) is a modular space station in low Earth orbit, representing a collaborative effort involving five space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA.
  • Established by intergovernmental treaties, the ISS serves as a microgravity research laboratory for various scientific disciplines, testing spacecraft systems for future missions, and facilitating potential exploration of the Moon and Mars.

History and Conception

  • Originated from Space Station Freedom (1984) and Soviet Mir-2 (1976) proposals.
  • Ninth inhabited space station, following Salyut, Almaz, Mir, and Skylab.
  • Largest artificial object in the Solar System, orbits at an average altitude of 400 km.
  • Divided into Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) and United States Orbital Segment (USOS).

Components and Structure

  • ROS operated by Russia, includes six habitable modules.
  • USOS operated by the United States and other countries, with seven habitable modules.
  • Total habitable volume of pressurized sections is 13,696 cu ft.
  • Key modules launched by Proton, Soyuz, Space Shuttles, and other spacecraft.
  • Serviced by Russian Soyuz, Progress, SpaceX Dragon 2, Northrop Grumman Cygnus, and more.

Scientific Research and Exploration

  • ISS serves as a platform for diverse scientific research, benefiting fields like astrobiology, physics, space weather, and more.
  • Supports studies in fluids, materials science, combustion, and medical research.
  • Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aims to detect dark matter, cosmic rays, and antimatter.
  • Vital for testing spacecraft systems for Moon, Mars, and deep space missions.
  • Potential for commercial, diplomatic, and educational purposes, fostering global collaboration.

Impact on Education and Culture

  • Engages students through student-developed experiments, educational demonstrations, and interactions with crew.
  • Supports educational activities by space agencies, inspiring interest in STEM fields.
  • Creates cultural connections through activities like music videos and virtual reality exhibits.

International Cooperation

  • ISS collaboration involves 15 countries and five space programs.
  • Intergovernmental Agreement outlines cooperation framework.
  • Continuation of cooperation uncertain due to geopolitical events (Russian invasion of Ukraine).
  • Speculations about post-ISS future, including potential commercial operations.

End of Mission and Cost

  • Multiple disposal options considered, including targeted de-orbit to a remote ocean area.
  • Extension of ISS operations proposed in various bills and laws.
  • Total cost estimated at $150 billion, involving various space agencies and shuttle flights.


In conclusion, the Crew-7 mission is a testament to the collaborative spirit of space exploration. By bringing together astronauts from diverse backgrounds and conducting a wide range of experiments, the mission embodies the multifaceted nature of modern space research. As humanity's ambitions expand to lunar, Martian, and interplanetary missions, such initiatives showcase the determination of nations to work together, pushing the boundaries of knowledge and discovery.


Q. Which statement about the International Space Station (ISS) is correct?

A) The ISS is located in a geostationary orbit, allowing it to hover over a fixed point on Earth's surface.

B) The ISS serves primarily as an observatory for studying distant galaxies and stars.

C) The ISS is a collaborative project involving multiple space agencies, including NASA, Roscosmos, ESA, and JAXA.

D) The ISS was originally designed for short-term missions, with a planned operational life of only 5 years.

Answer: C)