IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


8th July, 2024 Health


Source: MDPI

Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.


  • World Zoonoses Day is celebrated annually on July 6, marking the first successful rabies vaccine administered by Louis Pasteur in 1885.
  • Raises awareness about zoonotic diseases and promotes preventive measures to protect public health.


Zoonotic and Non-Zoonotic Diseases

  • Zoonotic Diseases:
    • Definition: Infectious diseases that can transfer between animals and humans.
    • Examples: Rabies, anthrax, influenza (H1N1 and H5N1), Nipah, COVID-19, brucellosis, and tuberculosis.
    • Causes: Various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.
  • Non-Zoonotic Diseases:
    • Definition: Diseases that affect animals but do not pose a risk to human health.
    • Examples: Foot & Mouth Disease, PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants), Lumpy Skin Disease, Classical Swine Fever, and Ranikhet Disease.

Importance of Differentiation

  • Public Health Strategy: Understanding which diseases are zoonotic is crucial for effective public health strategies.
  • Preventing Fear and Stigma: Differentiating between zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases helps reduce unnecessary fear and stigmatization of animals.

India's Livestock Population

  • Livestock: 536 million livestock, accounting for approximately 11% of the global livestock population.
  • Poultry: 851 million poultry, making up about 18% of the global poultry population.
  • Production: Largest producer of milk and second-largest producer of eggs globally.

Case Study: African Swine Fever (ASF)

Location: Detected in Madakkatharan Panchayath, Thrissur district, Kerala.

First Reported: May 2020 in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, now spread to 24 States/UTs in India.

Current Response: Rapid Response Teams formed, culling of pigs within a 1 km radius, and ongoing surveillance within a 10 km radius.

Non-Zoonotic Nature: ASF cannot spread to humans; currently, there are no vaccines for ASF.

Prevention and Control Measures

  • Vaccination: Campaigns for Brucella vaccination of bovine calves and rabies vaccination.
  • Hygiene and Animal Husbandry Practices: Ensuring good hygiene and proper animal husbandry to prevent disease spread.
  • Vector Control: Measures to control disease-carrying vectors.
  • One Health Approach: Collaboration among veterinarians, medical professionals, and environmental scientists to address zoonotic diseases comprehensively.

Nationwide Campaigns and Collaborative Efforts

  • National Action Plan for Control of ASF: Implemented in 2020 for outbreak response.
  • Brucella Vaccination Campaign: Under the National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP).
  • Rabies Vaccination: Under the Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD).
  • National Joint Outbreak Response Team (NJORT): Collaboration of experts from various ministries and departments for outbreak investigations.

Impact of Zoonotic Diseases

  • Public Health: Significant morbidity and mortality; potential to cause pandemics.
  • Economic: Costs related to healthcare, animal culling, and trade restrictions.
  • Social: Fear and stigma associated with outbreaks; impact on livelihoods, especially in agriculture and animal husbandry.

Summary of Common Zoonotic Diseases



Transmission Mode

Symptoms in Humans




Animal bites (usually from dogs)

Fever, headache, excess salivation, muscle spasms, paralysis, confusion

Vaccination of pets, avoiding stray animals, post-exposure prophylaxis


Bacteria (Bacillus anthracis)

Contact with infected animals or products

Skin sores, respiratory issues, gastrointestinal distress

Vaccination of livestock, protective clothing, proper handling of animal products

Avian Influenza (H5N1)


Respiratory droplets from infected birds

Fever, cough, sore throat, severe respiratory issues

Avoiding contact with infected birds, proper handling of poultry, vaccination

Nipah Virus


Contact with infected bats, pigs, or people

Fever, headache, drowsiness, disorientation, respiratory issues

Avoiding consumption of raw date palm sap, avoiding contact with infected animals


Virus (SARS-CoV-2)

Respiratory droplets, close contact

Fever, cough, difficulty breathing, fatigue, loss of taste/smell

Vaccination, wearing masks, social distancing, hand hygiene


Bacteria (Brucella spp.)

Contact with infected animals or products, consumption of unpasteurized dairy products

Fever, sweats, malaise, anorexia, muscle pain

Vaccination of livestock, pasteurization of dairy products, protective clothing

Bovine Tuberculosis (TB)

Bacteria (Mycobacterium bovis)

Inhalation of aerosols from infected animals, consumption of contaminated products

Persistent cough, chest pain, weight loss

Testing and culling of infected livestock, pasteurization of dairy products


Bacteria (Leptospira spp.)

Contact with water or soil contaminated by urine of infected animals

Fever, headache, muscle pain, jaundice

Avoiding contaminated water, protective clothing, vaccination of pets

Ebola Virus Disease


Contact with blood or bodily fluids of infected animals or humans

Fever, severe headache, muscle pain, vomiting, hemorrhage

Avoiding contact with infected individuals or animals, protective clothing, proper burial practices


Bacteria (Yersinia pestis)

Flea bites from infected rodents

Fever, chills, weakness, swollen lymph nodes

Control of rodent populations, use of insect repellent, antibiotics for exposed individuals




Q: Collaborative efforts and the One Health approach are essential in mitigating the risks associated with zoonotic diseases and ensuring a safer environment for all. Discuss. (250 Words)