IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


8th July, 2023 Geography

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State of emergency was declared in Peru's Moquegua region due to the activity of the Ubinas volcano.


  • Peru's Moquegua region has declared a state of emergency due to ongoing activity of the Ubinas volcano.
  • The volcano has been spewing ash and experiencing numerous explosions in the past two days.
  • President Alberto Otarola declared an emergency, stating that the Ubinas volcano has entered an "eruptive process."

Volcano Activity and Impact

  • The Ubinas volcano, located in the southern Andean region, began emitting ash onto surrounding villages on Tuesday.
  • The volcano had been inactive since 2019.
  • The ash plume reaches an altitude of approximately 5,000 meters (16,404 feet) and is carried by the wind to nearby villages.
  • The eruption is likely to impact approximately 2,000 people living in the vicinity.
  • The ash has covered houses and streets in nearby villages, prompting precautionary measures.

Precautionary Measures

  • Residents have been advised to remain indoors to prevent inhaling the ash.
  • The advisory will be in effect for the next two months.
  • Local authorities have not issued evacuation orders yet, but federal agencies are making preparations by setting up shelters.

Geographical Context

  • The Ubinas volcano is part of a group of seven volcanoes in southern Peru within a volcanic zone extending from southern Peru to northern Chile.
  • The affected area is situated within the "Ring of Fire," known for its volcanic activity and seismic events.

Previous Eruptions and Volcanic Region

  • During the eruption of Ubinas in 2019, hundreds of people were evacuated from the area.
  • Historical records indicate that Ubinas has experienced around 25 eruptions since 1550.
  • The regions of Moquegua, Arequipa, and Tacna, along with their neighboring areas, are home to approximately 40 volcanoes, with the majority currently dormant.

About Peru

  • Peru is a country located in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean to the west.
  • It shares borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Chile.
  • The country has a diverse landscape, including the Andes Mountains, the Amazon rainforest, and coastal regions.
  • Peru has a population of approximately 32 million people, with Lima being the capital and largest city.

Cultural and Historical Significance

  • Peru has a rich cultural heritage, with ancient civilizations such as the Inca Empire leaving significant historical landmarks and artifacts.
  • Machu Picchu, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an iconic symbol of Inca civilization and a popular tourist attraction.
  • The country is known for its vibrant traditional festivals, music, and cuisine, including ceviche and the famous Peruvian dish, Cuy (guinea pig).

Economy and Industries

  • Peru has a mixed economy with a diverse range of industries.
  • It is a leading producer of minerals such as copper, gold, silver, and zinc, contributing significantly to its export revenue.
  • Agriculture is also important, with Peru being a major exporter of products like coffee, asparagus, and quinoa.
  • The tourism sector plays a significant role, attracting visitors with its archaeological sites, natural wonders, and cultural experiences.

Environmental Diversity and Biodiversity

  • Peru is home to a remarkable range of ecosystems due to its diverse geography.
  • The Amazon rainforest covers a significant portion of the country, hosting a wide array of plant and animal species.
  • The Andes Mountains are characterized by high-altitude landscapes and unique flora and fauna.
  • Peru is considered one of the world's megadiverse countries, with abundant biodiversity and endemic species.

Challenges and Conservation Efforts

  • Peru faces environmental challenges such as deforestation, illegal mining, and habitat degradation.
  • Efforts are being made to promote sustainable practices, protect natural areas, and support indigenous communities.
  • The country has established numerous national parks, reserves, and protected areas to safeguard its natural heritage.

Cultural and Ethnic Diversity

  • Peru is a multicultural country with a rich blend of indigenous, European, African, and Asian influences.
  • Indigenous communities, including Quechua and Aymara, contribute to the country's cultural diversity.
  • Spanish is the official language, but Quechua, Aymara, and other indigenous languages are also spoken.


Q) Match the following:

Type of volcano  Characteristics
1.Cinder cones A. made from high-viscosity lava, ash and rock debris.
2.Lava Domes B.eruptions of mostly small pieces of scoria and pyroclastics
3.Composite C. eruption of low-viscosity lava that can flow a great distance from vent.
4.Shield  D.built by slow eruptions of highly viscous lava.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

(A)    1- A, 2- C, 3-B, 4-D

(B)    1-C, 2-B, 3-D, 4-A

(C)    1-D, 2-B, 3-A, 4-C

(D)   1-B, 2-D, 3-A, 4-C

Answer: D