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Project P76

1st July, 2024 Defence

Project P76

Source:Business standard

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  • While the procurement of new submarines under Project-75I continues, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has initiated a preliminary study for the design and development of an indigenous conventional submarine under Project-76.
  • This will be a continuation of the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project, to build a conventional submarine




  • Project-76: Aims to develop advanced indigenous conventional diesel submarines.

Project Overview

Preliminary Study and Approval

  • DRDO's Preliminary Study: Initiated for the design and development of an indigenous conventional submarine.
  • Approval: Defence Ministry approved, expected to take up to a year.
  • Formal Case: To be presented to the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) after the study.

Indigenous Content and Collaboration

  • 30-Year Submarine Building Program: Indian Navy’s long-term plan.
  • Collaboration: Involves government-owned PSUs and private-sector players.
  • Technology Development: Aims to cultivate state-of-the-art technologies.

Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) Module

Development and Fitment

  • AIP Module: Designed and developed by DRDO.
  • Scorpene-Class Submarines: Awaiting fitment, starting with Kalvari in 2025.
  • Fitment Duration: Expected to take 2-3 years, in collaboration with Naval Group

Features and Testing

  • Force Multiplier: Enables conventional submarines to remain submerged longer, increasing endurance and reducing detection.
  • Phosphoric Acid-Based: Utilizes fuel cells generating hydrogen.
  • Power Output: Current output 13.5 kW, scaling up to 20 kW for future requirements like Project-76.

Benefits of Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) Conventional Submarines

  • Increased Submerged Endurance: AIP allows submarines to stay underwater for extended periods without needing to surface or snorkel, enhancing their operational duration.
  • Reduced Detection Risk: By reducing the need to surface, AIP-equipped submarines are less likely to be detected by enemy forces, increasing their stealth and survivability.
  • Enhanced Stealth: AIP systems operate quietly, significantly reducing the acoustic signature of the submarine and making it harder for adversaries to detect.
  • Extended Mission Duration: Submarines with AIP can carry out longer missions without the need to resurface frequently, providing strategic advantages and increasing mission effectiveness.
  • Greater Tactical Flexibility: AIP-equipped submarines can undertake a variety of missions, including intelligence gathering, surveillance, and reconnaissance, with enhanced efficiency due to their prolonged underwater capabilities.
  • Lower Operational Costs: Compared to nuclear submarines, AIP submarines have lower operational and maintenance costs, making them a cost-effective option for enhancing naval capabilities..




Q.  Discuss the importance of submarines in modern naval warfare and analyze the initiatives taken by the Indian government to enhance its submarine capabilities.