IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


1st July, 2024 Health


Source: HindustanTimes

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  • Italy reported its first-ever case of Oropouche fever on June 15, 2024. The patient had recently returned from a trip to the Caribbean.


  • Brazil has seen a significant increase in cases, with more than 5,500 reported so far in 2024, compared to about 840 cases in 2023.
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reported the first-ever outbreak in Cuba on June 11, 2024, with approximately 70 confirmed cases.
  • Oropouche fever is an arboviral illness caused by the Oropouche virus (OROV), which is primarily transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides paraensis) and occasionally by mosquitoes.
  • The disease is prevalent in South and Central America, particularly in Brazil, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago, but it has recently been detected in new regions, including Europe.


  • Virus: Oropouche virus (OROV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus.
  • Vector: Primarily the biting midge (Culicoides paraensis); mosquitoes (Culex spp.) can also act as vectors.
  • Reservoirs: Sloths, non-human primates, and birds are considered potential reservoirs.


  • Vector-Borne: Through the bite of infected midges and mosquitoes.
  • Human-to-Human: No evidence of direct human-to-human transmission.

Clinical Manifestations

  • Incubation Period: 4-8 days.
  • Symptoms:
    • Sudden onset of high fever
    • Headache
    • Myalgia (muscle pain)
    • Arthralgia (joint pain)
    • Chills
    • Nausea and vomiting
  • Duration: Symptoms typically last for about 7 days.
  • Complications: Severe cases are rare but may include meningitis or encephalitis.


  • Supportive Care: There is no specific antiviral treatment for Oropouche fever.
    • Rest
    • Hydration
    • Pain and fever management using acetaminophen or NSAIDs.




Q. Mosquito-borne diseases pose significant public health challenges in India. Discuss the various mosquito-borne diseases prevalent in India, their impact on public health, and the strategies adopted by the government to combat these diseases. Additionally, suggest measures to enhance the effectiveness of these strategies. (15 marks)