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- The Centre on Wednesday approved royalty rates for lithium, niobium, and for Rare Earth Elements (REEs). For lithium and niobium, a royalty rate of 3% each has been fixed, while for Rare Earth Elements (REEs), the rate has been set at 1%.
- It is a gray-white metal that is uncommon, soft, malleable, and ductile.
- Nb represents the atomic symbol.
- It features a cubic crystalline structure with a body-cantered structure.
- It must be treated in a protected atmosphere even at low temperatures since it reacts with oxygen, carbon, halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur.
- The melting point is 2,477 degrees Celsius.
- Temperature at boiling point: 4,744 degrees Celsius
- An oxide layer forms over air, the color of which depends on its thickness. Blue, green, and yellow are common colors.
- Because of the oxide coating, niobium resists corrosion.
- At 200 degrees Celsius, the metal begins to oxidize rapidly in the air.
- At room temperature, the metal is inert to acids, including aqua regia, but it is damaged by hot, concentrated acids, as well as alkalis and oxidizing agents.
- It is one of the five major refractory metals (metals with extremely high heat and wear resistance).
- At low temperatures, it has the property of becoming superconducting.
- Source of this material:
- It is found in minerals such as columbite and tantalite rather than free in nature.
- Niobium is extracted commercially by first producing the oxide (Nb2O5). Carbon or hydrogen is then used to decrease the oxide.
- Brazil is the world's largest supplier, with Canada trailing far behind.
- It is utilized in the manufacture of high-temperature-resistant alloys and specific stainless steels.
- It is also utilized to construct superconducting accelerating structures for particle accelerators in its pure form.
- Because they do not react with human tissue, niobium alloys are employed in surgical implants.
- Niobium carbide is used in the manufacture of cutting tools.
- As wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing extremely powerful magnetic fields, niobium-tin, and niobium-titanium alloys are utilized.
Consider the following statements in regard to Niobium:
How many of the above statements are correct?