IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


7th October, 2023 Economy

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Picture Courtesy: iwai.nic.in

Context: The Minister of State for Ports, Shipping, and Waterways, recently inaugurated the dredging work at National Waterway 44 (Ichamati River) in West Bengal.


  • Dredging work is being carried out from Tentulia to Kalanchi, covering a distance of 23.38 kilometres. The goal is to achieve a navigational depth of 1.5 meters, which is essential for ensuring smooth navigation in the river.
  • The primary objective of this dredging project is to increase the navigational depth, which is crucial for enhancing tidal influence in the Ichamati River.
  • Before the dredging, efforts were made to clear the river of various obstructions, including water hyacinth, weeds, waste materials (including plastic and non-plastic materials), and natural and artificial (dumped materials).
  • This project is part of the broader efforts by the Indian government to promote and enhance inland water transport, which is considered an efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transportation. It is expected to have a positive impact on regional trade and transportation in the area.

About National Waterways-44 (Ichamati River)

  • The Ichamati River flows through both India and Bangladesh, serving as a natural border between the two countries for a significant portion of its course.
  • The River is divided into three parts. The longer part of the river originates from the Mathabhanga River, which is a distributary of the Padma River (a major river in Bangladesh). This section of the Ichamati River flows for approximately 208 kilometres.
  • The main channel of the Ichamati River eventually joins the Kalindi River. This confluence takes place near Hasnabad in the North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India, and Debhata in the Satkhira District of Bangladesh.
  • The Ichamati River, along with its tributaries, has formed a significant oxbow lake complex in the North 24 Parganas district near Bangaon. Oxbow lakes are often formed when a river's course changes over time, leaving behind curved or horseshoe-shaped water bodies.

Advantages of Developing NW-44

  • Enhanced Trade and Commerce: NW-44 offers a more efficient and cost-effective route for transporting goods between India and Bangladesh. This can facilitate increased trade and economic cooperation between the two countries, promoting economic growth and development in the region.
  • Cost-Effective Transportation: Utilizing the river as a waterway can reduce the cost of transporting goods and passengers compared to road and rail transportation. This can make transportation more affordable and accessible to people in the region, benefiting both businesses and consumers.
  • Job Creation: The development of NW-44 will lead to the creation of jobs in various sectors, including transportation, logistics, tourism, and related industries. This can contribute to employment opportunities and socio-economic development in the area.
  • Tourism Boost: The scenic beauty and rich biodiversity of NW-44 can attract tourists. As the river becomes more accessible through commercial development, tourism in the region is likely to flourish, bringing additional revenue and job opportunities.
  • Environmental Benefits: Compared to road and rail transportation, waterway development tends to have a lower environmental impact. It can help reduce pollution and congestion caused by road and rail traffic, contributing to environmental sustainability.

Challenges in Developing NW-44

  • Trans-Boundary Cooperation: NW-44 crosses the border between India and Bangladesh. Coordinating and cooperating with both countries is essential for the successful development of the river. Bilateral agreements and shared management plans will be necessary to ensure smooth operations.
  • Environmental Sustainability: Preserving the ecological balance and biodiversity of the river while developing it for commercial use is crucial. Environmental impact assessments and mitigation measures must be implemented to minimize harm to the environment.
  • Funding: The development of waterways can be costly. Securing adequate funding for dredging, constructing jetties, and terminals, and maintaining infrastructure is a challenge. It may require government investment, private sector participation, or international financial support.
  • Infrastructure and Logistics: Developing the necessary infrastructure for loading, unloading, and transporting goods efficiently is a significant logistical challenge. It requires careful planning and execution to ensure smooth operations.
  • Safety and Regulation: Ensuring the safety of vessels, passengers, and cargo on NW-44 is vital. Establishing and enforcing regulatory standards, safety protocols, and emergency response systems is essential for the river's safe navigation.

Way Forward

  • The development of NW-44 has the potential to bring numerous economic and social benefits to the region. However, addressing the challenges and concerns associated with the project will be critical to its success. Cooperation between India and Bangladesh, sustainable development practices, and adequate funding will play key roles in realizing the river's potential as a commercial waterway.


  • The development of NW-44 is a comprehensive initiative aimed at harnessing the potential of this transboundary river for economic, environmental, and social benefits. It reflects the importance of waterways in regional development and cross-border cooperation.

Must Read Articles:

Inland Waterways: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/inland-waterways

National Waterways: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/national-waterways


Q. How can India effectively leverage its extensive coastline and inland waterways for economic development and improved connectivity, while addressing environmental and social concerns in the context of waterway development?