IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


10th May, 2023 Culture

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  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has called Maharana Pratap a symbol of courage, valour and pride.
  • Paying tributes on the Jayanti of Maharana Pratap, the Prime Minister said he dedicated his life to the service of motherland and his life is a source of inspiration for generations. 


  • Pratap Singh I, popularly known as Maharana Pratap (9 May 1540 – 19 January 1597), was a Hindu Rajput king of Mewar from the Sisodia dynasty.
  • He fought several major battles against Akbar including the Battle of Haldighati in 1576 to resist the expansionist policy of the Mughal empire.
  • Pratap became a folk hero for his military resistance through guerrilla warfare which proved inspirational for later rebels against Mughals including Malik Ambar and Shivaji.

Early life

  • Maharana Pratap was born to Udai Singh II of Mewar and Jaiwanta Bai in 1540, the year in which Udai Singh ascended to the throne after defeating Vanvir Singh.
  • Pratap ascended the throne as Maharana Pratap, the 54th ruler of Mewar in the line of the Sisodia Rajputs.

Military career

Battle of Haldighati

  • In stark contrast to other Rajput rulers who accommodated and formed alliances with the various Muslim dynasties in the subcontinent, Mewar was going through a long standing conflict with the Mughals.
  • This started with the defeat of his grandfather Rana Sanga in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527 and continued with the defeat of his father Udai Singh II in Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568.
  • Pratap Singh, gained distinction for his refusal to form any political alliance with the Mughal Empire and his resistance to Muslim domination.
  • The conflicts between Pratap Singh and Akbar led to the Battle of Haldighati.
  • After a fierce battle lasting more than three hours, Pratap found himself wounded and the day lost.
  • He managed to retreat to the hills and lived to fight another day.
  • The Mughals were victorious and inflicted significant casualties among the forces of Mewar but failed to capture Maharana Pratap.

Reconquest of Mewar

  • Mughal pressure on Mewar relaxed after 1579 following rebellions in Bengal and Bihar and Mirza Hakim's incursion into the Punjab.
  • After this, Akbar sent Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan to invade Mewar but he stopped at Ajmer.
  • In 1582, Pratap Singh attacked and occupied the Mughal post at Dewair in the Battle of Dewair.
  • In 1585, Akbar moved to Lahore and remained there for the next twelve years watching the situation in the north-west.
  • No major Mughal expedition was sent to Mewar during this period.
  • Taking advantage of the situation, Pratap recovered most of Mewar (except its former capital), Chittorgarh and Mandalgarh regions by defeating Mughal forces there.
  • During this period, he also built a new capital, Chavand, near modern Dungarpur.

Patronage of art

  • Maharana Pratap's court at Chavand had given shelter to many poets, artists, writers and artisans.
  • The Chavand school of art was developed during the reign of Rana Pratap.


  • Reportedly, Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident, at Chavand.


Q) Which of the following statements with reference to Maharana Pratap is/are correct?

1. The Chavand school of art was developed during the reign of Rana Pratap.

2. His reign began with the defeat of Mughals in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer: 1