IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis

LIQUID IED

18th June, 2024 Defence

LIQUID IED

Source: wionews

Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.

Context:

  • In South Kashmir's Pulwama district, police found liquid IEDs hidden in an apple orchard.
  • Security forces are dealing with recent attacks in the Jammu region.
  • Now, they also face the threat of these hard-to-detect liquid IEDs used by terror groups after decades.

Details:

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)

  • Introduction
  • Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are unconventional homemade explosives.
  • IEDs vary in shape, size, and triggering methods.
  • IEDs are used by a wide range of individuals and groups, including criminals, vandals, terrorists, suicide bombers, and insurgents.
  • Characteristics of IEDs

Unconventional Weapons

  • IEDs are homemade explosives, which can be designed in various forms and triggered through different mechanisms.
  • These weapons are highly adaptable and can be customized to fit specific attack scenarios.

Diverse Forms

The forms of IEDs can range from small pipe bombs to complex devices capable of causing mass destruction. They can be:

  • Carried, placed, or thrown by a person
  • Delivered in a package
  • Concealed on the roadside
  • Carried or delivered in a vehicle

Term Origin:

  • The term IED became widely recognized during the Iraq War, which began in

Components of an IED

Initiating Mechanism: An IED includes a detonator to trigger the explosion.

Explosive Charge: The main explosive material within the device.

Casing/Projectiles: A container for the explosives, often filled with objects such as nails or ball bearings to create lethal fragments upon detonation.

Enhancements

IEDs may be packed with additional materials, such as:

  • Nails, glass, or metal fragments to increase shrapnel
  • Hazardous materials for radiological, chemical, or biological effects

Materials Used in IEDs:

Explosive Materials:

IEDs can be made from a wide range of materials, including:

  • Artillery rounds
  • Mortar rounds
  • Aerial bombs
  • Fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate)
  • TNT
  • Other commercial explosives

Radiological, Chemical, or Biological Components

  • Some IEDs may incorporate radiological, chemical, or biological components.
  • This enhances their destructive and psychological impact.

Security Concerns:

Liquid IEDs:

  • There is significant concern regarding explosives created from liquid components.
  • These can be transported in a stable form and mixed at the site of the attack.
  • This concern led to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security restricting the amount of liquids passengers can carry on commercial aircraft since 2006.

Sources: wionnews

PRACTICE QUESTION

Which of the following materials can be used to construct IEDs?

  1. Artillery rounds
  2. Aerial bombs
  3. Fertilizers
  4. TNT
  5. Radiological, chemical, or biological components

Select the correct answer using the code below:

A) 1, 2, and 3 only

B) 2, 3, and 4 only

C) 1, 3, 4, and 5 only

D) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5

Answer: D) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5