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Context: Tribals from Karnataka's 'Hakki-Pikki', a semi-nomadic tribal community, are stuck in violent Sudan.


  • Thirty-one members of the 'Hakki-Pikki' tribe are stuck in Sudan, where violent confrontations are ongoing between an elite paramilitary force and the country's armed forces.
  • The Hakki-Pikki had run out of food since the riots began this weekend.
  • According to the Karnataka State Disaster Management Authority, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) has been informed about the status of the tribals in Sudan.
  • The stranded people have been advised not to leave their current location and to follow the counsel of the Indian Embassy there.
  • India is working closely with other countries to ensure the safety and security of its citizens in Sudan.

Hakki-Pikki Tribe


  • The HakkiPikki is a Kshatriya or warrior tribal community who had to migrate to South India after being defeated by the Mughals.
  • 'Hakki' means 'bird' in Kannada, and 'Pikki' means 'to catch'. As a result, the group is known as the 'bird catcher,' referring to their traditional work.
  • Hakki-Pikki has a population of 11,892 people, according to the 2011 census.


  • It is a nomadic community that originated in the forests of Karnataka.
  • It is a Scheduled Tribe of Karnataka.
  • They are also known as Kirshaka Bandi, which means "farmers' enemies" because they used to raid the crops of the settled farmers.
  • They are well-known for their traditional medicines. For a long time, the group lived in the deep woods and developed its plant and herb-based medicinal systems.
    • Traditional medicinal knowledge of the Hakki-Pikkis is in high demand in numerous African countries. As a result, for many years, community members have travelled to the continent.
  • They have their dialect, which is a mixture of Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi.

Social Structure

  • The tribe has a unique social structure, based on clans and sub-clans.
  • Each clan has a headman, called a Nayaka, who is responsible for the welfare and discipline of the clan members.
    • The Nayaka also acts as a mediator in case of disputes or conflicts among the clan members or with other clans.
  • The tribe follows a matrilineal system of inheritance, where property and wealth are passed down from mother to daughter.
    • Women also have more authority in decision-making and leadership roles within the family and the community.

Life Style

  • The Hakki Pikki tribe has a distinctive way of life, which is influenced by their nomadic nature.
  • They live in temporary huts made of bamboo and grass, which they dismantle and carry with them when they move to a new place.
  • They wear colourful clothes and ornaments, made of beads, shells, coins, and feathers.
  • The tribe has a rich and diverse culture, with their language, customs, beliefs, and traditions.
  • Scholars dubbed their mother tongue "Vaagri." They communicate in 'Vaagri' at home but speak Kannada daily.
    • UNESCO has designated 'Vaagri' as one of the endangered languages.

Economic Activities

  • They follow a mixed economy that involves hunting, gathering, farming, fishing, and trading.
  • After bird hunting was prohibited, they began doing odd jobs like working in fields and sharpening knives and sickles while riding their bicycles around towns.
  • They also collect honey, fruits, roots, herbs, and medicinal plants from the forest.
  • They cultivate crops like rice, millet, maize, and vegetables on leased land or as sharecroppers.
  • They trade their products with other communities or sell them in local markets.
  • They are famous for their handicrafts, which they make from animal bones, horns, feathers, skins, shells, beads, and metal.
  • They also sell the herbal treatments that they produce.

Religious Beliefs

  • They practice animism, which is the belief that all living and non-living things have a spirit or soul.
  • They worship various gods and goddesses, such as Mariamma, Beerappa, Maramma, and Kariyamma.
  • They also believe in magic, witchcraft, and sorcery, and consult shamans or healers for curing diseases or solving problems.


Q. Which of the following statements is incorrect about the Hakki Pikki tribe?

A) They are a nomadic tribe of hunters and gatherers who live in temporary settlements made of bamboo and thatch.

B) They follow a patrilineal system of inheritance where property and authority are passed on through the father's line.

C) They have their dialect which is a mixture of Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, and Marathi.

D) They make various handicrafts from animal bones, horns, feathers, skins, shells, beads, and metal.

Answer: B