IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


12th September, 2023 Health

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Picture Courtesy: Indian Express

Context: The G20 Leaders' Summit resulted in a joint declaration that spells out the major commitments and priorities of the G20 countries in tackling the current and future health challenges. The declaration emphasizes the need for strengthening health systems, ensuring equitable access to vaccines and medicines, promoting innovation and research, and enhancing cooperation and coordination among the G20 and other stakeholders.


  • The G20 is a group of major economies that meets annually to discuss and coordinate various economic and financial issues. The G20 has increasingly recognized the importance of health as a global issue, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • India assumed the G20 presidency in 2023, providing an opportunity to prioritize global health issues.
  • The G20 New Delhi Leaders' Declaration represents a significant commitment by the G20 leaders to address various global health challenges, strengthen health systems, and promote equitable access to healthcare and medical countermeasures.

Key Features of the Declaration

Resilient Health Systems

  • The declaration emphasizes the need to build resilient health systems that are capable of withstanding various challenges. These systems should be designed to provide equitable access to healthcare services for all.
  • The focus is on sustainability, inclusivity, and effectiveness. This involves strengthening primary healthcare services, improving the health workforce, and ensuring that essential health services are readily available to the population.
  • The goal is to enhance health system capacity to levels that are even better than those observed before the COVID-19 pandemic. This improvement is ideally targeted to be achieved within the next two to three years. 

Pandemic Preparedness

  • G20 leaders acknowledge the critical importance of preparing for future pandemics. While the declaration addresses current health challenges, it also recognizes the significance of research on the long-term effects of COVID-19, often referred to as "long COVID."
  • This highlights the commitment to proactive measures and research aimed at preventing and managing future health crises.

Access to Medical Countermeasures

  • The declaration commits to improving access to medical countermeasures, which include vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and other tools used in response to health emergencies.
  • Special emphasis is placed on ensuring that developing countries have equitable access to these medical countermeasures. This involves enhancing the production capacity and supply chains in such countries.

One Health Approach

  • The declaration promotes the One Health approach, which involves the collaboration of multiple sectors, including human health, animal health, and environmental health. This collaborative approach aims to address health challenges holistically.
  • The One Health Joint Plan of Action (2022-2026) serves as a guiding framework to enhance the resilience of health systems by considering the interconnectedness of health in humans, animals, and the environment.

Climate-Resilient Health Systems

  • Leaders stress the importance of developing health systems that can withstand the impacts of climate change. This is vital for ensuring that healthcare services remain accessible and effective under changing environmental conditions.
  • Collaboration with multilateral development banks (MDBs) is encouraged to support the development of climate-resilient and low-carbon health systems.
  • Support for the work of the WHO-led Alliance for Transformative Action on Climate and Health (ATACH) is highlighted.

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

  • The declaration recognizes the critical issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), where microorganisms become resistant to drugs. The One Health approach is emphasized in addressing AMR.
  • Efforts to combat AMR include research and development of new antimicrobial agents, infection prevention and control measures, and responsible antimicrobial stewardship efforts.

Equitable Access to Healthcare

  • G20 leaders commit to facilitating equitable access to healthcare services. This commitment is especially significant for low- and middle-income countries, as well as least-developed countries.
  • The goal is to ensure that safe, effective, quality-assured, and affordable vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and other medical countermeasures are accessible to all populations.

Traditional and Complementary Medicine

  • The declaration acknowledges the potential role of evidence-based traditional and complementary medicine in public health delivery systems. These practices are considered valuable when rigorously and scientifically validated.
  • Support for international efforts in this direction is recognized, including the work of WHO's global and collaborating centres and clinical trial registries.

Counter-Narcotics Cooperation

  • Leaders recognize the public health dimension of the global drug problem. They call for strong international cooperation to combat the production and proliferation of illicit drugs, including synthetic drugs, and precursor chemicals.
  • This cooperation includes information sharing and capacity building to disrupt the drug trade at various stages, from production to transit and distribution.

Global Health Architecture

  • The declaration highlights the commitment to strengthen the global health architecture. This involves enhancing collaboration between finance and health ministries, as well as other relevant stakeholders, under the Joint Finance and Health Task Force.
  • The goal is to enhance pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response capabilities on a global scale.

These key features collectively represent a comprehensive and coordinated approach to addressing global health challenges and promoting resilient, equitable, and sustainable health systems worldwide.

The Declaration carries significant implications and importance

Global Commitment to Addressing Health Challenges

  • The declaration signifies a unified global commitment among G20 member countries to address pressing health challenges. It reflects their recognition of the importance of collective action in safeguarding global health.

Emphasis on Collaboration

  • The declaration places a strong emphasis on collaboration across sectors and nations. This collaborative approach is evident in the promotion of the One Health framework, which recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health.
  • Collaboration also extends to climate resilience, traditional medicine, and counter-narcotics efforts, highlighting the need for comprehensive solutions to complex health issues.

Equitable Access to Healthcare

  • The commitment to facilitating equitable access to healthcare services, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is of significant importance. This underscores the goal of leaving no one behind in the quest for universal health coverage.
  • Ensuring equitable access to medical countermeasures, including vaccines, is crucial for addressing global health disparities and achieving health security for all

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR)

  • Recognizing the significance of tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the One Health approach is a major step forward in preserving the effectiveness of essential medicines. AMR is a growing threat to global health, and concerted efforts are needed to combat it effectively.

Traditional and Complementary Medicine

  • The acknowledgement of the potential role of evidence-based traditional and complementary medicine signifies an inclusive approach to healthcare. It recognizes that traditional practices can play a valuable role when supported by scientific validation.
  • This recognition is significant for cultures and regions where traditional medicine has been a part of healthcare for generations.

International Cooperation on Counter-Narcotics

  • The commitment to strong international cooperation on counter-narcotics reflects the understanding that public health and drug control efforts are intertwined. This cooperation can help address the complex challenge of drug production, distribution, and consumption.

Possible Challenges may arise during the implementation

  • Implementation and Equitable Access: Turning commitments into concrete actions and ensuring equitable access to healthcare and medical countermeasures can be challenging. This requires effective distribution mechanisms, addressing supply chain issues, and overcoming logistical barriers, particularly in resource-constrained settings.
  • Financing and Resource Allocation: Allocating sufficient financial resources for health system strengthening, especially in low-income countries, may pose a challenge. Mobilizing funding for building resilient health systems, addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and investing in climate-resilient health infrastructure will be critical.
  • International Coordination: Effective collaboration and coordination among G20 member states and international organizations are essential for addressing global health challenges. Ensuring that commitments translate into coordinated actions on a global scale requires diplomatic efforts and consensus-building.
  • Data Privacy and Security: The sharing of health data and digital health innovations, while crucial for global health, also raises concerns about data privacy and security. Balancing the need for data sharing with protecting individuals' privacy will be an ongoing challenge.
  • Regulatory Harmonization: Harmonizing regulations for medical countermeasures, including vaccines and therapeutics, across countries can be complex. Overcoming regulatory barriers to ensure timely access to safe and effective healthcare interventions is vital.
  • Public Health Messaging: Communicating health information effectively to diverse populations, including vaccine hesitancy, will continue to be a challenge. Public health messaging and education must be tailored to local contexts and cultures.
  • Geopolitical Tensions: Geopolitical tensions among G20 member states can potentially hinder international cooperation in health. Building consensus and maintaining diplomatic relations are essential for addressing global health threats.
  • Addressing Health Inequalities: Achieving equitable access to healthcare and addressing health inequalities within and between countries are long-term challenges that require sustained efforts and policies to reduce disparities.
  • Climate Change Adaptation: Developing climate-resilient health systems will require significant investments and adaptation strategies. Ensuring that health infrastructure can withstand the impacts of climate change is a complex and ongoing process.

Overcoming these challenges will require commitment, cooperation, and ongoing efforts by G20 member states and the international community. It will also necessitate adaptability and innovation to respond to emerging global health threats effectively.

Way forward for implementing the commitments outlined in the declaration

  • G20 member states should prioritize the practical implementation of the commitments made in the declaration. This includes strengthening health systems, improving access to medical countermeasures, and promoting the One Health approach.
  • Collaboration: Ongoing collaboration between finance and health ministries, as highlighted by the Joint Finance and Health Task Force, is vital for the effective implementation of health-related initiatives. Coordination at both national and international levels is essential.
  • Research and Innovation: Continued support for research, development, and innovation in healthcare is necessary to address current and future health challenges. This includes investing in scientific research, healthcare infrastructure, and digital health technologies.
  • Equity: Ensuring equitable access to healthcare and medical countermeasures, especially for low- and middle-income countries and vulnerable populations, should remain a priority. Efforts should focus on reducing health disparities both within and between countries.
  • Climate Resilience: G20 member states should work towards developing climate-resilient health systems and infrastructure. This includes investments in healthcare facilities that can withstand climate-related challenges.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR): Addressing AMR should be an ongoing effort, incorporating research, infection prevention and control, and antimicrobial stewardship. Collaboration with international organizations and sharing best practices is essential.
  • Data Governance: Establishing robust data governance frameworks for sharing health data and digital health innovations is crucial. This should include addressing data privacy and security concerns while facilitating data sharing for public health purposes.
  • Public Health Education: Prioritizing public health education and effective communication strategies is essential. This includes addressing vaccine hesitancy and ensuring that health information reaches diverse populations.
  • Geopolitical Diplomacy: Maintaining diplomatic relations and minimizing geopolitical tensions among G20 member states is crucial for international cooperation in health. Diplomatic efforts should focus on common goals in global health security.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation: Establishing mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating progress on health-related commitments is necessary. Regular assessments will help track achievements and identify areas that require further attention.

The G20 member states, along with international organizations and stakeholders, should work collaboratively to ensure that the commitments outlined in the declaration translate into meaningful actions that strengthen global health security and resilience.


  • The G20 New Delhi Leaders' Declaration underscores the global recognition of the importance of health and the commitment to building resilient and equitable health systems to address a wide range of health challenges. Its successful implementation will require sustained efforts and cooperation among member states and international organizations.

Must Read Articles:

India’s G20 Presidency: https://www.iasgyan.in/rstv/perspective-indias-g20-presidency

G20: https://www.iasgyan.in/daily-current-affairs/g20-10


Q. What are the key features of the G20 Declaration on Health, and what is its significance in addressing global health challenges? What are some of the challenges that may hinder the implementation of this declaration, and what steps can be taken to overcome these challenges and pave the way forward for improved global health cooperation?