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Daily News Analysis

Editorial Analysis 3 July

3rd July, 2024 Editorial Analysis

POLITY

Digital Jurisprudence and AI in the Legal Framework

Source: The Hindu

Context

  • Current legal frameworks have concerns with General Artificial Intelligence (GAI) such as liability, copyright and privacy. On one hand innovations like VakilAI can help lawyers on the other AI's judicial use raises fundamental rights concerns and challenges balancing with data privacy.

Introduction

  • Increasing use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) into judicial processes worldwide with the improvement in efficiency but at the same time it raises significant concerns about bias, transparency and data privacy.

Concerns with AI in Judiciary

  • AI systems may create societal biases which impacts equal protection (Article 14) under Indian Constitution.
  • It has transparency issues which arise from AI's opaque decision-making process. It can potentially violate 'due process of law' under Article 21.
  • Increased dependency on AI outputs by judges may compromise fair and independent judicial assessments.

Recommendations for AI in Judiciary

  • Borrowing of “Implement opt-out mechanisms” of General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) of the European Union to provide human choice in AI application.
  • Supervision of human in judicial decision-making to mitigate AI biasedness and ensure fairness.
  • Development of standardized guidelines by the Supreme Court of India for responsible AI use in the judiciary to ensure transparency and accountability.

Balancing Innovation (AI) with Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023 (DPDPA)

  • Key features:
    • It ensures data sovereignty by protecting individuals' personal data in the digital space.
    • It is being inspired by EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) for comprehensive data privacy standards.
    • It aims to concise regulations in addressing data protection concerns in India.
    • It empowers individuals to control their personal data by allowing them to use, access and correct.
    • It focuses on building trust in digital transactions by enforcing legal boundaries on data collection and usage.

Challenges for AI with DPDPA

  • Transparency should be maintained by AI systems to disclose the data processing methods.
  • Data minimization by collect only required data to avoid privacy violations.
  • Obtaining valid consent from data principles for usage.
  • Usage of data only for specified legal purposes.
  • Implementation of robust safeguards and guidelines to protect sensitive data.
  • Providing flexibility by allowing users to access, correct or delete their data in future.

VakilAI - AI Platform for Lawyers

Aim

To automate the legal tasks and improve efficiency in legal research.

Features

Enhanced AI search for legal documents and judgements.

It provides for auto-generation of legal petitions and documents.

Benefits

It promotes efficiency by saving time in legal tasks.

It improves professional-personal life balance among legal professionals by reducing huge workload.

Possible measures

  • Creating awareness and promotion of education among stakeholders about DPDPA rights and responsibilities.
  • Integration of privacy considerations into product and service development processes from the outset.
  • Conducting frequent audits and assessments of data processing practices to ensure DPDPA compliance.
  • Appointment of Data Protection Officers (DPOs) should be made mandate organizations to oversee compliance and act as points of contact.
  • Implementation of robust data security protocols such as encryption and access controls to protect personal data from breaches.

Conclusion

  • Balancing AI innovation in the judiciary with data privacy rights is inevitable. Therefore, policymakers must update legal frameworks to address AI-specific challenges while ensuring compliance and respecting fundamental rights thereby promoting responsible AI use in legal practice.

Sources:

The Hindu

ENVIRONMENT

A HOME FOR THE CHEETAH

Source: Indian Express

Context

  • Project Cheetah in India faces challenges like carrying capacity, prey depletion, and competition in Kuno National Park, necessitating cheetah relocation to Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary for ecological balance, sustainable management, and long-term conservation.

Background

  • Cheetahs had been recorded as extinct in India over 70 years ago. Therefore, Government of India has initiated a Project Cheetah to reintroduce cheetahs in Indian soil to restore ecological balance.

About Project Cheetah

  • Project Cheetah has been initiated to reintroduce and establish a reasonable cheetah population in India.
  • It involves several phases. The first phase involved relocating cheetahs to Kuno National Park (KNP), Madhya Pradesh.
  • GoI has planned for further relocations to Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary (GSWS) and Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary.

Challenges related to Project Cheetah

  • Carrying Capacity
    • Current population at Kuno National Park has reached its maximum carrying capacity limit which 21 cheetahs.
  • Decline in prey population
    • Around 25% of prey (chital) population is declined.
    • Number of chital killed by cheetahs (around 50) is much lower than the overall declining population of chital which is around 2,250 due to various other factors.
  • Leopard Competition
    • Leopards which are native to Kuno National Park have competition with cheetahs for prey.
  • Monitoring Challenges
    • Monitoring of cheetahs’ health is crucial and difficult due to their long extinction in India.
  • Human-Wildlife Conflict
    • Introducing larger predators to control leopards could increase conflict with humans.

Why Gandhi Sagar as Second Home for Cheetah

  • Gandhi Sagar is located near to Kuno National Park with significant protected area.
  • Government has taken few steps like preparation of fenced area and grassland development.

Relocation of Cheetahs

  • Cheetahs will be relocated to Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary from Kuno National Park by November 2023.
  • And subsequent relocation to Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • However, Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan is not a current priority.

Reasons for Relocation

  • Supreme Court has directed to distribute cheetahs more widely due to recent deaths at Kuno National Park.
  • Six cheetahs (including three cubs) have died at Kuno National Park since March 2023.
  • The national park has also space constraints and potential prey depletion which necessitate relocation.

Measures to be taken

  • Habitat Management
    • Creation of suitable habitats and sufficient prey base in new locations is needed.
  • Monitoring and Research
    • Comprehensive and detailed monitoring plan should be there for cheetahs’ health and survival.
  • Conflict Mitigation
    • Addressing critical issues like human-wildlife conflicts through community engagement and mitigation strategies.
  • Long-term Planning
    • Sustainable wildlife management with continuous evaluation and adjustments.

Way forward

  • Ensure success in Gandhi Sagar Wildlife Sanctuary and Nauradehi before expanding to other locations.
  • Continuous monitoring and research are necessary to address challenges.
  • Focus should be made on community involvement and conflict mitigation.

Conclusion

  • Project Cheetah is a significant step towards restoring India's ecological balance. Despite challenges, careful planning, monitoring and community involvement can ensure the success of Project Cheetah thereby providing valuable lessons for future conservation efforts in India.

Sources:

Indian Express