IAS Gyan

Daily News Analysis


8th July, 2024 Science and Technology


Source: Hindu

Disclaimer: Copyright infringement not intended.


  • Japan has issued its first new banknotes in two decades.
  • The new yen banknotes are packed with 3D hologram technology to combat counterfeiting.


3D Hologram Technology

  • A 3D hologram is a three-dimensional image formed by the interference of light beams from a laser or other coherent light source. It creates the illusion of a 3D object in space.
  • History:
    • 1947: Concept proposed by Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-British physicist, who later received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971.
    • 1960s: Development of the laser enabled practical holography.
    • 1990s: Advancements in computer technology facilitated digital holography.

Principles of Holography

  • Interference and Diffraction: Holography relies on the interference pattern created when two light beams (object beam and reference beam) meet.
  • Recording and Reconstruction:
    • Recording: The interference pattern is recorded on a photosensitive material.
    • Reconstruction: Illuminating the recorded pattern with the reference beam reconstructs the light waves, creating a 3D image.

Types of Holograms

  • Transmission Holograms: Viewed with light shining through them, often used in art and security.
  • Reflection Holograms: Viewed with light reflecting off them, commonly used in holographic displays and credit cards.
  • Hybrid Holograms: Combine elements of both transmission and reflection holograms.

Applications of 3D Hologram Technology




Medical Field

Medical Imaging

Detailed visualization of complex structures, aiding in diagnosis and surgery


Remote consultation using holographic displays

Education and Training

Virtual Classrooms

Interactive learning experiences

Technical Training

Realistic simulations for skill development

Entertainment and Media

Concerts and Performances

Holographic projections of artists

Movies and Gaming

Immersive visual experiences


Holographic Telepresence

Real-time 3D communication, enhancing virtual meetings

Security and Authentication

Holographic Seals

Anti-counterfeiting measures in currencies and documents

Advantages of 3D Hologram Technology

  • Realism: Provides a highly realistic visual experience.
  • Interactivity: Enhances user engagement through interactive features.
  • Remote Accessibility: Facilitates remote interactions and operations.
  • Data Visualization: Effective for complex data representation in various fields.


  • High Costs: Expensive equipment and technology.
  • Technical Complexity: Requires advanced technical skills for creation and maintenance.
  • Bandwidth Requirements: High data transmission rates needed for real-time applications.
  • Environmental Sensitivity: Susceptibility to environmental conditions like lighting and vibrations.

Comparison between different technologies


3D Hologram Technology

Augmented Reality (AR)

Virtual Reality (VR)

Mixed Reality (MR)


Creates three-dimensional images visible to the naked eye

Overlays digital content onto the real world

Immerses users in a completely virtual environment

Combines elements of both AR and VR, allowing interaction with both real and virtual objects

Key Components

Laser beams, holographic plates, light interference patterns

Cameras, sensors, AR glasses/smartphones, software

VR headsets, sensors, haptic devices, software

MR headsets (e.g., Microsoft HoloLens), sensors, cameras, software


Freestanding 3D images viewable from different angles

Digital overlays on the physical world viewed through a device

Complete immersion in a digital environment viewed through a headset

Digital and physical worlds coexist and interact in real-time, viewed through a device

User Interaction

Passive viewing, limited interaction

Interactive, with digital content responding to the physical world

Fully interactive with virtual objects using controllers and sensors

Interactive, with digital and physical objects interacting seamlessly


Advertising, entertainment, education, medical imaging

Gaming, navigation, industrial maintenance, retail

Gaming, training simulations, virtual tours

Design, prototyping, complex simulations, collaborative workspaces

Hardware Requirements

Holographic display units, specialized projection systems

AR-capable devices like smartphones, tablets, AR glasses

High-performance VR headsets, powerful computing hardware

Advanced headsets with high computational capabilities

Development Complexity

High, due to the need for precise holographic imaging

Moderate, requires integration with physical world data

High, due to the need for realistic and immersive environments

Very high, due to the need to blend real and virtual worlds seamlessly

Market Availability

Limited, emerging technology

Widespread, with various consumer and industrial applications

Growing, with increasing adoption in gaming and professional fields

Emerging, with specialized applications in industry and design


High, due to advanced technology and equipment

Moderate to high, depending on the device and application

High, primarily due to the cost of VR headsets and supporting hardware

Very high, due to advanced hardware and software requirements

User Experience

Visually impressive but limited in interactive capabilities

Enhances real-world experiences with additional information

Fully immersive, often isolating the user from the real world

Blends real and virtual experiences, allowing interaction with both




Q: 3D hologram technology, with its potential to revolutionize various fields, represents a significant advancement in visual and communication technologies. Comment. (150 Words)